Write a discussion that includes a brief summary of;

  1. The five types of hypersensitivities and provide clinical examples of each
  2. Allergic rhinitis including its physical assessment and clinical manifestation, laboratory testing, allergy testing, and treatment(Types of Hypersensitivities essay example)
  3. The three clinical criteria of anaphylaxis and include the emergency care of the patient with anaphylaxis and provide examples of drug therapy
  4. Latex allergy

DISCUSSION WK 5-sample solution

Types of Hypersensitivities essay example

There are five groups of hypersensitivity; Type I hypersensitivity constitutes reactions mediated by IgE and occurs immediately after exposure to foreign substances, causing allergies or anaphylaxis (Abbas et al., 2022). Clinical examples include respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, and angioedema. Consequently, type II hypersensitivity is mediated by IgE or IgM and takes hours to days before symptoms manifest(Types of Hypersensitivities essay example). Abbas et al. (2022) explain that its clinical manifestations include hemolytic disease of the newborn and Goodpasture’s syndrome. The antigen-antibody immune response mediates Type III hypersensitivity, which takes hours, days, or weeks before symptom manifestation (Abbas et al., 2022). Its clinical examples include serum sickness and rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, Abbas et al. (2022) observe that type IV hypersensitivity is a T-cell-mediated reaction that takes 24-72 hours before symptoms manifest. It causes contact dermatitis. Lastly, type V hypersensitivity reactions result from antibody-targeting cell receptors, causing health conditions like Grave’s disease.(Types of Hypersensitivities essay example)

Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis is an IgE-mediated response to antigens, causing symptoms like sneezing, nasal congestion, and nasal pruritis (Testera-Montes et al., 2021). Physical symptoms include allergic shiners, persistent throat clearing, mouth breathing, swelling of the nasal mucosa, septal deviation, wheezing, and dermatitis. Besides, Small et al. (2018) observe that allergic rhinitis manifests through a nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, itching eyes, frequent fatigue, persistent coughing, and sneezing(Types of Hypersensitivities essay example). It can be tested in the laboratory through skin-pick testing with allergens available in a patient’s surroundings and allergen-specific IgE tests conducted through immunosorbent assays (Small et al., 2018). The allergic triggers for the disease are also identified through skin-prick tests, nasal allergen challenge, and basophil activation tests (Testera-Montes et al., 2021). Finally, Small et al. (2018) illustrate that the treatment of allergic rhinitis focus on relieving its symptoms. The treatment options include the administration of oral antihistamines (loratadine and cetirizine), intranasal corticosteroids (acetonide and ciclesonide), and allergen immunotherapy (Small et al., 2018).(Types of Hypersensitivities essay example)

Clinical Criteria of Anaphylaxis

The three criteria for anaphylaxis diagnosis include acute skin or mucosal symptoms, with either hypotension, difficulty breathing, or end-organ dysfunction (Greenhawt et al., 2019). Also, it can manifest through two or more symptoms like hypotension, respiratory compromise, a frequent manifestation of gastrointestinal symptoms like vomiting, and acute skin or mucosal symptoms (Turner et al., 2019)(Types of Hypersensitivities essay example). Lastly, it occurs through the development of hypotension immediately after exposure to allergens that usually affects the patient, such as systolic pressure, which is 30% lower than the baseline pressure (Turner et al., 2019). Notably, making a 911 call for medical help is essential during emergency care for anaphylaxis. Then, lie the patient down with elevated legs and press an epinephrine autoinjector into the patient’s mouth (Muraro et al., 2022). First aid measures like cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can also be administered to the patient. Drug therapy for anaphylaxis includes epinephrine, beta-agonist like albuterol, and antihistamines and cortisol administered intravenously (Turner et al., 2019).(Types of Hypersensitivities essay example)

Latex Allergy

Latex allergy refers to the body’s reaction to proteins like natural rubber latex, resulting in skin itching, swelling of the throat, coughing, wheezing, troubled breathing, confusion, dizziness, and reduced blood pressure (Nucera et al., 2020). It is diagnosed through skin-prick tests and blood tests. Moreover, latex allergic reactions are treated through epinephrine injections and allergy medications.(Types of Hypersensitivities essay example)

Types of Hypersensitivities essay example



Abbas, M., Moussa, M., & Akel, H. (2022). Type I hypersensitivity reaction. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK560561/

Greenhawt, M., Gupta, R. S., Meadows, J. A., Pistiner, M., Spergel, J. M., Camargo Jr, C. A., … & Lieberman, P. L. (2019). Guiding principles for the recognition, diagnosis, and management of infants with anaphylaxis: an expert panel consensus. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice7(4), 1148–1156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2018.10.052

Muraro, A., Worm, M., Alviani, C., Cardona, V., DunnGalvin, A., Garvey, L. H., … & European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Food Allergy, Anaphylaxis Guidelines Group. (2022). EAACI guidelines: Anaphylaxis (2021 update). Allergy77(2), 357–377. https://doi.org/10.1111/all.15032

Nucera, E., Aruanno, A., Rizzi, A., & Centrone, M. (2020). Latex allergy: current status and future perspectives. Journal of Asthma and Allergy, 385-398. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.2147/JAA.S242058

Small, P., Keith, P. K., & Kim, H. (2018). Allergic rhinitis. Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology14(2), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13223-018-0280-7

Testera-Montes, A., Jurado, R., Salas, M., Eguiluz-Gracia, I., & Mayorga, C. (2021). Diagnostic tools in allergic rhinitis. Frontiers in Allergy2, 721851. https://doi.org/10.3389%2Ffalgy.2021.721851

Turner, P. J., Worm, M., Ansotegui, I. J., El-Gamal, Y., Rivas, M. F., Fineman, S., … & Cardona, V. (2019). Time to revisit the definition and clinical criteria for anaphylaxis? World Allergy Organization Journal12(10). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.waojou.2019.100066

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