Community-based learning is integral to promoting a healthy community. Community teaching improves health literacy, which helps prevent health problems, protect people from diseases, and help people manage health problems when they arise. Community teaching is foundational in enabling the community to actively participate in improving individual and community health, engage successfully in community action for health promotion, and help meet government and health institutions’ responsibilities in ensuring health and health equity. This community teaching plan will focus on diabetes education to help prevent and manage the disease successfully.
Planning and Topic
The teaching plan will focus on prevention and health promotion in a church community. The health promotion topic will be preventing and managing diabetes at the individual and community levels.
Section 1: Planning Before Teaching:
|Name and Credentials of Teacher: Fill out this table with your name, proposed teaching location, audience, etc.
|Estimated Time Teaching Will Last:
|Location of Teaching: The Redeemed Christian Church of God, Winners Assembly. Bellevue Nebraska
|Supplies, Material, and Equipment Needed:
|Estimated Cost: $2,000
|Community and Target Aggregate: Low-income community with a target audience of about 3500 individuals
|Topic: Preventing and managing diabetes
Identification of Focus for Community Teaching
The focus of community teaching will be preventing and managing diabetes at the individual and community levels. Diabetes prevalence, particularly type 2 diabetes mellitus, in low- and middle-income communities is increasing due to the inability to adopt effective preventative and management measures (Shirinzadeh et al., 2019). Research shows that the increasing diabetes prevalence in these communities is attributed to unhealthy eating, sedentary lifestyles, high alcohol intake, and smoking habits (Shirinzadeh et al., 2019). Community-based interventions can be shared through community teaching to help individuals adopt healthy behaviors and lifestyles, which is vital in preventing and managing diabetes at the individual and community levels.
Epidemiological Rationale for Topic
Diabetes is a prevalent health condition in the United States, affecting about 37.3 million people across all ages, 11.3% of the population (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases [NIDDK], 2023). Around 37.1 million people with diabetes are those 18 years or over. Diabetes is often underdiagnosed because, according to the NIDDK (2023), only 28.7 million people of all ages have been diagnosed with it, about 8.7%. Of those, 28.5 million are 18 years or older. Children diagnosed with diabetes are 283,000, and young people below age 20 with type 1 diabetes are 244,000 (NIDDK, 2023). About 8.5 million people 18 years or older have diabetes but is yet to be diagnosed, which is about 23% of all adults with diabetes (NIDDK, 2023). The cost the US incurs in addressing diagnosed diabetes is about $327 billion.
Section 2: Teaching Plan Criteria
The high prevalence of diabetes in the US raises significant concerns regarding the entire population. About 11.3% of all Americans have diabetes, and it costs the US around $327 billion annually to address the disease and its impacts (NIDDK, 2023). Diabetes is highly prevalent among low- and middle-income communities due to limited financial resources to adopt effective preventative and management strategies. Research indicates lifestyles are central to diabetes development, including adiposity, dieting habits, smoking, extensive alcohol intake, and sedentary lifestyles (Shirinzadeh et al., 2019). Teaching about healthy lifestyles has proven effective in preventing and managing diabetes at the individual and community levels.
Readiness for Learning
Multiple factors indicate an individual’s likeliness to seek and acquire knowledge and participate in behavior change. Such factors include knowledge of the problem and its consequences and understanding the need for behavior change. Also, the audience’s physical and psychological comfort around the topic, including anxiety and fear, impacts an individual’s motivation and ability to learn. How the audience views the healthcare problem and what they think are appropriate actions to take are essential factors to consider when preparing the teaching plan. Additional factors include information processing capacity, affective state, and prior learning and experience (Community Teaching Plan).
Learning Theory to Be Utilized
The self-efficacy theory will be applied in the community teaching plan. Self-efficacy describes a person’s belief in their capacity to execute particular behaviors needed to generate or achieve specific milestones or goals (American Psychological Association, 2019). The theory reflects confidence in controlling an individual’s motivation, behavior, and social environment. The self-efficacy approach will be applied in the self-management of chronic disease, in this case, diabetes, by driving self-motivation and drive towards healthy dieting, smoking cessation, reducing alcohol use, and exercising.
Healthy People 2030 intends to “reduce the burden of diabetes and improve quality of life for all people who have, or are at risk for, diabetes.” This objective aligns with the focus of community teaching (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022). Related objectives include lowering the number of diabetes cases diagnosed annually (D-01), lowering the death rate among adults with diabetes (D-09), raising the number of individuals with diabetes receiving formal diabetes education (D-06), Increasing the number of adult patients using insulin who track their blood sugar daily (D-07), and increasing the number of adult patients receiving a yearly eye exam (D-04) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022). Community teaching will adopt these objectives among the teaching goals (Community Teaching Plan).
HP2030 Objective Relation to Alma Ata’s Health for All Global Initiatives
The Healthy People 2030 goal is to lower the burden of diabetes and enhance the quality of life for all people with or at risk for diabetes (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022). The goal targets everyone, which aligns with Alma Ata’s Health for All Global Initiatives that focus on improving health for all people from the focus of the world community and healthcare workers and institutions (Rifkin, 2018). The initiatives aim at expanding access to health services, and in America, it resulted in policy and strategy reinforcement to expand health coverage.
and Domain Learners will be able to identify attitudes and behaviors that are helpful or hurtful to persons with diabetes.
|Content to be Taught
1. Self-psychological and behavior evaluative tests of individuals with and without diabetes.
|Learning Activities 1. Interactive posters and testimonials from people with diabetes and those who have recovered from or have successfully managed the disease
|Learners will be able to explain the Prime Diabetes Model.
|2. Simulation for long-term clinical and cost outcomes in patients with diabetes (Pollock et al., 2022).
|2. Simulation on a projector and online platforms from those with digital literacy. Learners will watch the simulation and try carrying out the simulations on their own, guided by the healthcare providers.
|Learners will be able to analyze a fishbone diagram for the cause and effect of diabetes.
|3. Fishbone indicates cause and effect, adopting a fishbone-like structure (Cox & Sandberg, 2018).
|3. PowerPoint presentation and interactive posters and brochures.
|Learners can evaluate the best prevention and management strategies, their efficacy, and their cost.
|4. Case studies and simulations
|4. Interactive posters, Q&A, and discussions
|Learners will be able to identify required changes to one’s lifestyle and the stress involved in diabetes management.
|5. healthy foods and dieting, appropriate exercises, lifestyles, including alcohol intake and smoking, and medical exams to participate in.
|4. Interactive brochures, PowerPoint presentations, Q&A sessions, group discussions, educative and inspirational videos, and testimonials.
Various creative ways will be adopted to increase learner engagement. Such approaches include assumption-busting, brain-sketching, brainstorming, concept mapping, fishbone diagrams, simulations, and group sessions. The teaching will be highly interactive and engaging, and these approaches will help increase learner engagement because they require learner input, inquiry, and idea sharing.
Planned Evaluation of Objectives
The following outcome measures will be determined for each objective
- Learners’ ability to verbalize attitudes and behaviors that are helpful or hurtful to persons with diabetes
- Learners’ ability to understand and complete the Prime Diabetes Model simulation.
- Learners’ ability to describe the fishbone diagram and identify causes and effects.
- Learners’ ability to verbalize and evaluate best prevention and management strategies, their efficacy, and their cost.
- Learners’ ability to verbalize required changes to one’s lifestyle and the stress involved in diabetes management.
Planned Evaluation of Goal
The results from determining the outcome measures will be used to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the presentation. Additionally, the educator will conduct a post-evaluation survey per the learning objectives and self-evaluations of general comments about the presentations from the audience. At the end of the presentation, the audience can give opinions about the sessions and their take. The results will be analyzed to help determine the overall effectiveness of the presentation.
Planned Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Teaching
Post-evaluation surveys for learning objectives and self-evaluation questionnaires for general comments will be used to collect feedback from the participants regarding the presentation. The Q&A session will also help determine whether the participants acquired and processed the information presented. An opinion session will be opened at the end of the presentation when the participants can share their take on the presentations with other participants. These approaches will offer adequate feedback about the presentation.
The US is a diverse country, and language barriers can be an issue for individuals who lack English literacy attending the presentation. Also, managing group dynamics can be an issue because of the diverse cultures and beliefs impacting patient education. Moreover, it might be challenging to conduct a successful presentation when some participants become problematic or disrupt the event. Lack of community and church leaders’ support throughout the presentation can be an issue impacting the successful completion of the presentation. A robust plan will help address this issue. The team will identify community needs, including language barriers and cultural differences that would impact learning, suggestions from community members, and adopt those suggestions in developing the teaching plan. A security member will be at the site to address any problematic participants. Church leaders will be communicated comprehensively with their needed support throughout the presentation.
Section 3: Therapeutic Communication
To capture the audience’s interest, I would provide shocking or unexpected diabetes statistics and describe stories about diabetes, including people with diabetes and their life journey and how it has affected their functionality. I will establish a personal experience by encouraging testimonials from the audience. All learning activities will be related to a recent event (s). I will also focus on what is essential to the audience (Hamilton College, 2023). To demonstrate and encourage active listening, I will ask open Q&A sessions and open-ended questions, establish group sessions during the presentations, and adopt interactive posters and brochures. I will initiate random conversations with the audience, adopt stories and describe events the community can relate to, promote turn-taking during interactive discussions, minimize distractions and problematic circumstances, and ask and provide timely feedback, not ignoring questions.
The session will end with a reflection and summary of the presentation. I will open a session for participants to share general opinions and comments about the presentation, what they have learned, and what they look forward to. I will acknowledge the participants’ role in making the presentation successful. Regarding non-verbal techniques to employ during the presentation, I will dress appropriately for the occasion, maintain a proper posture, use appropriate gestures, maintain eye contact, and avoid judgmental facial expressions and other body movements.
American Psychological Association. (2019). Self-efficacy teaching tip sheet. https://www.apa.org. https://www.apa.org/pi/aids/resources/education/self-efficacy
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022). National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2019: Estimates of Diabetes and its Burden in the United States. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pdfs/data/statistics/national-diabetes-statistics-report.pdf
Cox, M., & Sandberg, K. (2018). Modeling Causal Relationships in Quality Improvement. Current problems in pediatric and adolescent health care, 48(7), 182–185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cppeds.2018.08.011
Hamilton College. (2023). Engaging your audience. https://www.hamilton.edu/academics/centers/oralcommunication/guides/how-to-engage-your-audience-and-keep-them-with-you
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases [NIDDK]. (2023, February 1). Diabetes statistics. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-statistics/diabetes-statistics#
Pollock, R. F., Norrbacka, K., Boye, K. S., Osumili, B., & Valentine, W. J. (2022). The PRIME Type 2 Diabetes Model is a novel, patient-level model for estimating long-term clinical and cost outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of medical economics, 25(1), 393–402. https://doi.org/10.1080/13696998.2022.2035132
Rifkin S. B. (2018). Alma Ata after 40 years: Primary Health Care and Health for All-from Consensus to Complexity. BMJ global health, 3(Suppl 3), e001188. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2018-001188
Shirinzadeh, M., Afshin-Pour, B., Angeles, R., Gaber, J., & Agarwal, G. (2019). The effect of community-based programs on diabetes prevention in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Globalization and Health, 15(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12992-019-0451-4
UT Health San Antonio. (2022). Behavioral Learning Objectives Primer. https://www.uthscsa.edu/sites/default/files/2018/learning_objectives_primer2.pdf