Write a discussion that includes a brief summary of;

  1. Changes in the integumentary system related to aging
  2. Phases of wound healing
  3. Preventing pressure ulcers
  4. Summary of the five stages of pressure ulcers
  5. Scabies & Psoriasis(The integumentary system essayexample)

DISCUSSION WK 6-sample solution

The integumentary system essayexample

Changes in the Integumentary System Related to Aging

Bonté et al. (2019) illustrate that the integumentary system comprising the skin and its appendages undergoes various changes due to aging, including the development of a thinner epidermis and reduced dermis regeneration, slowing the wound healing process. The fat reduction also causes the hypodermis to lose its structure, resulting in skin sagging. Additionally, reduced activity of accessory structures also contributes to thinner hair and reduced sebum and sweat production (Bonté et al., 2019). The skin also becomes pale with low immunity due to the degeneration of melanocytes and dendritic cells.(The integumentary system essayexample)

Phases of Wound Healing

Wound healing occurs in four phases: hemostasis, which involves vascular constriction, aggregation of platelets, degranulation, and fibrin formation(The integumentary system essayexample). The second step is inflammation, whereby neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes are infiltrated while macrophages are differentiated (Aitcheson et al., 2021). Afterward, proliferation occurs, whereby granulation tissue is formed accompanied by wound margin contractions and epithelialization (Mathew-Steiner et al., 2021). Finally, the collagen is remodeled as the vascular cells mature and undergo regression, resulting in the tensile strength of the extracellular matrix.(The integumentary system essayexample)

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Preventing Pressure Ulcers

Pressure ulcers are skin injuries caused by prolonged pressure on the skin. It can be prevented in various ways, such as frequent repositioning of body weight, lifting the body, using cushions and mattresses that relieve pressure, regular use of skin moisturizers, and using soft sponges when washing the skin areas susceptible to injuries (Mansouri et al., 2023: Mamom & Daovisan, 2022). Mansouri et al. (2023) explain further that it is important to understand the body parts susceptible to pressure to make it easy to identify the most suitable relief options. Also, ensuring a balanced diet with lots of fluids is important to improve skin health.(The integumentary system essayexample)

Summary of the Four Stages of Pressure Ulcers

Zaidi and Sharma (2022) observe that pressure ulcers occur in four stages rather than five, with stage I consisting of intact skin and non-blanch-able redness. In stage II, the skin thickness comprising of dermis and epidermis is partially lost. Afterward, stage III occurs, resulting in the loss of full-skin thickness extending to the fatty tissue. Stage IV involves deep wounds affecting the muscles, bones, and tendons. The full-thickness skin loss occurs deeply into the fascia.(The integumentary system essayexample)

Scabies and Psoriasis

Scabies is a skin infection caused by parasitic mites burrowing into the epidermis and laying eggs, affecting fingers, armpits, genitals, and breasts (Leung et al., 2020). It causes itching and skin rashes and is identified by viewing skin samples for the presence of mites’ eggs under a microscope. Additionally, it can be treated by applying scabicide on the skin. Consequently, Rendon and Schäkel (2019) observe that psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects the face, armpits, joints, and hands. It causes reddening, inflammation, and irritation of the skin. It also causes pain and bleeding, producing a fine scale-like texture and skin fissures. It is diagnosed through a physical examination of the skin and family medical history for potential heredity (Rendon & Schäkel, 2019). It can be prevented through UV light therapy and anti-inflammatory medication.(The integumentary system essayexample)

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The integumentary system essayexample



Aitcheson, S. M., Frentiu, F. D., Hurn, S. E., Edwards, K., & Murray, R. Z. (2021). Skin wound healing: normal macrophage function and macrophage dysfunction in diabetic wounds. Molecules26(16), 4917.https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26164917

Bonté, F., Girard, D., Archambault, J. C., & Desmoulière, A. (2019). Skin changes during aging. Biochemistry and Cell Biology of Ageing: Part II Clinical Science, 249-280. DOI: 10.1007/978-981-13-3681-2_10

Leung, A. K., Lam, J. M., & Leong, K. F. (2020). Scabies: a neglected global disease. Current pediatric reviews16(1), 33-42. https://doi.org/10.2174/1573396315666190717114131

Mamom, J., & Daovisan, H. (2022). Repositioning mattress: How a lateral tilt position reshapes the prevention of pressure ulcers in bedridden patients. Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology46(8), 658-669. https://doi.org/10.1080/03091902.2022.2094007

Mansouri, M., Krishnan, G., McDonagh, D. C., Zallek, C. M., & Hsiao-Wecksler, E. T. (2023). Review of assistive devices for preventing pressure ulcers: an engineering perspective. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 1-20.https://doi.org/10.1080/17483107.2023.2204127

Mathew-Steiner, S. S., Roy, S., & Sen, C. K. (2021). Collagen in wound healing. Bioengineering8(5), 63.https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8050063

Rendon, A., & Schäkel, K. (2019). Psoriasis pathogenesis and treatment. International journal of molecular sciences20(6), 1475. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061475

Zaidi, S. R. H., & Sharma, S. (2022). Pressure Ulcer. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK553107/

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