Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)-Nursing Paper Examples

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a cognitive and chronic impairment following exposure to trauma or severe stressors such as natural disasters, combat, sexual assault, child abuse, or other interpersonal conflicts. The disorder remain characterized by 20 symptoms within four clusters: active avoidance and intrusions. In addition, negative alterations in arousal, cognition, and reactivity.

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

The risk factors for PTSD include psychological and biological factors like gender, childhood adversities existing mental illness, poverty, and lack of social support or education. Considering the severity and nature of the trauma remain vital while determining potential risk factors. This essay discusses the diagnostic criteria for PTSD and one evidence-based intervention (Post-traumatic Stress Disorder).

The DSM-5 is the latest diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Criterion A features the stressor, including exposure to the risk of death, injury, or violence (Mann & Marwaha, 2023). The exposure may result from direct experiences, witnessing other people’s experiences, learning about loved ones who have been exposed to death, injury, or violence threats, and indirect exposure to details of traumatic events, for instance, professionals who are repeatedly exposed to stories of trauma through their clients.

Criterion B features intrusions marked by one or more involuntary, intrusive, and recurrent thoughts, distressing nightmares, dissociative reactions (flashbacks), and intense and prolonged psychological stress marked with physiological reactivity such as increased heart rate or BP (Post-traumatic Stress Disorder).

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Criterion C remain marked by avoidance of stimuli linked with the traumatic event. The stage remain marked by efforts to avoid distressing memories or external reminders such as people, events, and activities related to the traumatic event. Criterion D entails negative alterations in mood marked by prolonged negative emotions, diminished interest in activities that previously made one happy, and feeling alienated.

Moreover, criterion E entails arousal and reactivity alterations notable through irritability, hypervigilance, and recklessness. Criterion F shows the duration marked by the persistence of symptoms in Criteria B, C, D, and E for one month. However, Criterion G shows significant functional impairment and distress. Consequently, the disturbance is not attributable to medication, substance use, or other illnesses in Criterion H.

Prolonged exposure (PE) has been extensively studied and used as an evidence-based intervention for PTSD. The intervention is based on the emotional theory. More so, which asserts that cognitive structures in a person’s mind have associative networks such as distressing stimuli and responses. The responses do not reflect the potential danger after a traumatic event.

The intervention takes about 8-15 sessions, including psycho-education about PTSD and breathing retraining. Moreover, it helps patients in stressful circumstances that remain inapplicable in the exposure (Wachen et al., 2019). The treatment also comprises in-vivo exposure to help clients approach people, places, or a situation they fear. Moreover, until the distress reduces, imaginal exposure, where the patients approach thoughts and memories. In addition, emotions of a traumatic event they have been avoiding (Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)).

References

Mann SK & Marwaha R. (2023). Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan–. PMID: 32644555.

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Wachen, J. S., Dondanville, K. A., Evans, W. R., Morris, K., & Cole, A. (2019). Adjusting the timeframe of evidence-based therapies for PTSD-massed treatments. Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry6, 107-118.

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