The paper must include a cover page and references. ***Do NOT use internet sources for your assignment. A student will receive a zero (0) if he or she uses internet sources for the assignment. Use your text book Only***
Write a 4-to-6 page summary paper (Not including the cover & Reference pages) that discusses a summary of
- Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (include the signs and symptoms, diagnosis, plus nursing care)
- Cat scratch disease (include the signs and symptoms, diagnosis, plus nursing care)
- Urinary tract infections (include the signs and symptoms, diagnosis, plus nursing care)
- Hemolytic uremic syndrome (include the signs and symptoms, diagnosis, plus nursing care)
- Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) (include the signs and symptoms, diagnosis, plus nursing care)
- Sickle cell disease (include the signs and symptoms, diagnosis, plus nursing care)
- Von willebrand’s disease (include the signs and symptoms, diagnosis, plus nursing care)
- Acute lymphocytic leukemia (include the signs and symptoms, diagnosis, plus nursing care)
Remember, write your paper as a word document
PLEASE USE THIS BOOK: ReferenceWard Susan, L., & Hisley Shelton, M. (2009). Maternal-Child Nursing Care Optimizing Outcomes for Mothers. Children, and Families. Philadelphia, FA Davis
ASSIGNMENT WK 6-Sample Solution
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) is a disease transmitted to humans through a tick bite. RMSF can be mild, moderate, or severe with gradual or sudden onset. The signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle, joint, and abdominal pain, lack of appetite, and severe headache (Ward & Hisley, 2009). Individuals also experience flat and circumscribed rashes between 3 and 5 days following the onset of fever. These rashes begin on the palms and soles and move to the trunk.(Sickle Cell Disease Summary-Essay-Samples)
RMSF diagnosis is based on primary symptoms, including fever, tick bite history, and rash. In addition, laboratory tests should show elevated levels of white blood cells and liver enzymes, hyponatremia, and low platelets (Ward & Hisley, 2009). Nursing care for RMSF includes a skin biopsy using an immunostaining procedure or an indirect immunofluorescence assay for specific RMSF antibodies. Earlier administration of tetracycline is recommended for RMSF and continued for about three days after the fever subsidies. Other medications recommended include doxycycline and chloramphenicol. Moreover, supportive therapy includes antipyretics, IV fluids, anti-inflammatories, and medication.(Sickle Cell Disease Summary-Essay-Samples)
Cat Scratch Disease
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a self-resolving illness caused by Rochalimaea henselae that lasts between 6 and 12 weeks and is associated with a cat bite or scratch. Clinical manifestations include swollen lymph nodes around the scratch that begins between 1 and 3 weeks following the bite or scratch, generalized rashes, thrombocytopenia purpura, nausea and vomiting, sore throat, anorexia, weight loss, low-grade fever, and general malaise (Ward & Hisley, 2009). Diagnosis involves a recent history of a cat scratch or bite, confirmatory lymph node biopsy, positive CSD-specific antigen response, and alternative lab tests to refute or confirm the diagnosis. Nursing care includes the administration of antibiotics used to treat Cat scratch disease. No other treatment and nursing care regimen is indicated for the Cat scratch disease.(Sickle Cell Disease Summary-Essay-Samples)
Urinary Tract Infections
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are bacterial, viral, or fungal infections of the urinary system primarily associated with Escherichia coli. The signs and symptoms of UTIs vary by age. In infants, jaundice, inability to thrive, fever, poor feeding habits, and vomiting (Ward & Hisley, 2009). Pre-schoolers may present with anorexia, sleepiness, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and odor in urine. School-age children may have new enuresis, strong-smelling urine, urgency, or flank pain, and adolescents may experience fatigue and flank pain.
Diagnosis of UTIs is based on the primary symptoms, a urine culture, complete blood count, and test for blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Imaging studies are recommended for suspected obstruction (Ward & Hisley, 2009). Nursing care includes monitoring the patient’s progress, administering prescribed medications, educating the patient and family, and promoting preventive measures. Nursing care for UTIs aims to work with the patient, family, and other healthcare providers to diagnose and treat the infection.(Sickle Cell Disease Summary-Essay-Samples)
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) is a condition that causes acute renal failure and affects children mostly between 6 months and three years old. It is usually caused by ingesting beef contaminated with E. coli, but other organisms can also cause it (Ward & Hisley, 2009). The symptoms of HUS include gastroenteritis with diarrhea and vomiting, anemia, thrombocytopenia, decreased urine output, hypertension, and even seizures. The diagnosis of HUS requires laboratory tests and the analysis of elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, hyperkalemia, and altered serum glucose and electrolyte levels.
The nursing care for Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome involves monitoring the patient’s electrolyte balances, consciousness, fluid intake and output, and vital signs for hypertension and tachycardia (Ward & Hisley, 2009). In addition, an assessment of the patient’s renal and cardiac status and signs of congestive heart failure are recommended. In addition, electrocardiography is recommended for assessing changes in the electrical impulses in the heart.(Sickle Cell Disease Summary-Essay-Samples)
Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)
Iron-deficiency anemia is a nutritional disorder caused by an insufficient supply of iron, essential for hemoglobin production. Infants and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to iron-deficiency anemia due to various factors like decreased iron supply, impaired iron absorption, increased blood loss, and iron demand (Ward & Hisley, 2009). Clinical manifestations vary with the severity of the disorder, ranging from asymptomatic in mild cases to irritability, fatigue, decreased activity level, pale skin, tachycardia, and congestive heart failure in moderate to severe cases.
Diagnosis is based on the outcomes of physical examination, patient history, and laboratory tests. Laboratory tests measure the changes in blood iron concentration, hemoglobin, and morphological characteristics (Ward & Hisley, 2009). Early identification and recognition of IDA are necessary for appropriate for its prevention. This can be achieved by providing nutritional counseling, obtaining recommended iron-fortified formula and cereal, and teaching the parents about administering iron supplements. An elemental iron dosage of 3 mg/kg dq depends on body weight (Ward & Hisley, 2009). The nurse should communicate to the parents that after several days of starting iron replacement therapy. A rise in the reticulocyte count indicates red blood cell production, necessitating follow-up with the healthcare provider.(Sickle Cell Disease Summary-Essay-Samples)
Sickle Cell Disease
Sickle cell disease is a genetic hematological disorder that results when the amino acid valine is substituted for glutamine in the normal hemoglobin A (HbA) globin chain, replaced with hemoglobin S (HbS) (Ward & Hisley, 2009). This leads to the formation of sickled cells, which are more fragile, easily destroyed, and cause tissue ischemia and occlusions in the circulatory system leading to clinical symptoms. The most common symptom of sickle cell disease is pain, which can occur anywhere in the body and is due to a vaso-occlusive crisis. Other symptoms include jaundice, body weakness, pallor, and tissue hypoxia.
The diagnosis of sickle cell disease is made through newborn screening, hemoglobin electrophoresis, and laboratory tests such as CBC and reticulocyte count. The primary goal of nursing is to identify and treat hypoxic episodes early and provide care based on the patient’s presentation (Ward & Hisley, 2009). This includes rest, hydration, pain control, and adequate oxygenation. Adequate hydration, oral or intravenous, is recommended along with pain control through pharmacological or non-pharmacological measures. Respiratory status and oxygenation should also be monitored, and a complete respiratory assessment should be performed to minimize the risk of acute pulmonary events.(Sickle Cell Disease Summary-Essay-Samples)
Von Willebrand’s Disease
Von Willebrand’s Disease (vWD) is an inherited bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of von Willebrand factor (vWF). The most common symptoms of vWD are epistaxis (nosebleeds), bleeding from the oral cavity, menorrhagia (excessive menstrual bleeding), and easy bruising (Ward & Hisley, 2009). Diagnosis of vWD can be made through comprehensive family history and physical examination. Blood tests include CBC, partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, platelet function assay, fibrinogen, thrombin time, vWF, and vWF antigen.
Treatment for vWD includes desmopressin (DDAVP) administration to increase plasma levels of vWF and factor VIII, IV Humate-P, and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or cryoprecipitate administration (Ward & Hisley, 2009). For children with vWD, nursing care involves advising the use of a medical alert bracelet, educating parents about common sites of bleeding and how to control it, instructing children on avoiding activities that may cause bleeding, avoiding the use of aspirin or NSAIDs, and recommending cool mist humidification for those prone to epistaxis (Ward & Hisley, 2009). Nursing also involves educating adolescent females about heavy menstrual flow and avoiding embarrassing moments.(Sickle Cell Disease Summary-Essay-Samples)
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a childhood cancer, accounting for 75-80% of all childhood leukemias and a third of all childhood cancers. The onset of ALL can be acute or gradual, with symptoms including fever, fatigue, anemia, anorexia, bone or joint pain, bleeding, abdominal distension, and enlarged lymph nodes or spleen (Ward & Hisley, 2009). Diagnosis requires a bone marrow aspirate showing more than 25% abnormal lymphoblasts and is confirmed through additional testing.
Nursing care involves three phases of treatment: induction of remission, consolidation, and maintenance. Inducing remission involves reducing the tumor burden, with 95% of children achieving remission through chemotherapy, CNS prophylaxis, and in some cases, anthracycline drugs (Ward & Hisley, 2009). The consolidation phase focuses on destroying any residual leukemic cells through 6 months of high-dose chemotherapy and potential radiation. Finally, the maintenance phase lasts 2-3 years and aims to control leukemia.(Sickle Cell Disease Summary-Essay-Samples)
Ward, S.L., & Hisley S.M. (2009). Maternal-Child Nursing Care Optimizing Outcomes for Mothers. Children, and Families. Philadelphia, FA Davis