Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example

Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example

• Describe cellular processes and alterations within cellular processes

The amount of a specific metabolite at any one time will reflect the equilibrium of biosynthesis, biochemical transformation into other metabolites, degradation, transit into and out of the cell, and sequestration into and out of storage structures. Cellular activities are dynamic, and the level of a particular metabolite at any given time will reflect this balance. The cell cycle comprises interphases (G1, S, G2) and mitosis, including prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, which permit cell growth, DNA replication, and division. Uncontrolled cell division can be due to alterations within cellular processes, contributing to tumor and cancer formation.(Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example)

Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example
Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example 1

• What is the impact of the genetic environment on disease?

Humans have complex molecular processes underlying human health and disease. Typically, genetic and environmental factors non-additively contribute to particular diseases or phenotypes, causing a genetic environment (G × E) interaction.  (Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example)

• Explain how healthy cell activity contributes to good health and

Healthy cell activity is key for sustaining good health. Cells serve the role of basic building blocks and facilitate multiple functions to allow the body to function properly. Therefore, healthy cells are vital for good health because they can function efficiently, contributing to overall health and well-being.(Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example)

• how its breakdown in cellular behavior and alterations to cells lead to health issues.

A breakdown in cellular behavior or alteration in cells causes health issues. The breakdown of cellular behavior or alteration to cells can be due to genetic mutations. For instance, DNA mutations can alter normal cellular processes, causing cells to grow or function abnormally.  (Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example)  

• What are the roles genetics plays in disease processes?

Genetic changes are linked to an increased risk of developing specific diseases, including giving birth to a child with birth defects or developmental issues that increase the risk of developing diseases like heart disease or cancer. For instance, DNA variations, coupled with environmental factors like lifestyle, contribute to disease processes. Additionally, various health issues are due to genetics, including single gene disorders, epigenetics, chromosomal imbalance, and certain cancers and complex disorders. (Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example)

• What is the relationship of how cells are involved in disease processes?

Cells play a key role in disease processes. Every disease begins with the mechanisms within a cell failing. Cells are the structure of the body, they absorb nutrients from food, convert the nutrients into energy, and conduct specialized functions. Therefore, any developing disease and the disease process is related to a specific cell functional failure. (Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example)

Altered Physiology

• Evaluate cellular processes and alterations within cellular processes

Cells serve as energy sources via processes such as glycolysis, oxidate phosphorylation, and citric acid cycle, producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Therefore, alterations within cellular processes, like mitochondrial dysfunction, lead to impaired energy generation, contributing to numerous diseases and metabolic disorders.(Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example)

• Analyze alterations in the immune system that result in disease processes

The immune system necessitates a sensitive and dynamic process that strikes a balance between antimicrobial effector actions and sufficient mechanisms to reduce inflammation and avoid self-damage. In fact, tissue damage, inflammation, and autoimmune disease can result from dysregulated immune responses and a breakdown in these processes. For instance, immunosenescence is the age-related changes in the immune system. These complex alterations cause dysregulated immune function and inflammatory processes. Additionally, when the immune system fails to differentiate between invaders and own cells, it can react against own cells and molecules, causing autoimmune diseases. (Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example)

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• Identify racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning

Racial/ethnic variables affect health and disease. For instance, some ethnic/racial groups are more susceptible to cardiovascular diseases. Specifically, African-American and Hispanic populations are at an increased risk of developing heart failure and experiencing higher mortality rates. Additionally, African Americans are also at a higher likelihood of experiencing heart failure from non-ischemic causes. Moreover, unlike white patients African-American and Hispanic populations are more likely to experience heart attacks at a younger age. This is also true for diabetes and hypertension.   (Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example)

• What is the impact of patient characteristics on disorders and altered physiology?

Patient characteristics of age, gender, genetics, race/ethnicity, economic status, healthcare utilization, and religion have a significant impact on disorders and altered physiology. For instance, old age contributes to multiple disorders like dementia, heart disease, hypertension, osteoporosis, kidney disease and failure, and diabetes because of a weaker immune system, less muscle mass, and altered cell growth and effectiveness. Similarly low economic status and healthcare utilization contribute to disorders like diabetes and related complications, birth defects, hypertension, and heart disease.  (Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example) 

Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example
Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example 2

• What is the association of genes in the development of disease?

Genes are associated with the development of diseases due to abnormal gene activities like mutations. A deleterious mutation in any of the many genes can cause an increased risk of a particular disease like Alzheimer’s disease and polycystic kidney disease. Additionally, dysregulation of gene expression programs can lead to multiple diseases because they cannot maintain cell states in the human body.   (Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example)

• What is the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems?

Immunosuppression involves reducing the typical immune function; hence the capacity to respond to foreign antigens. The process of immunosuppression can involve killing immune effector cells or blocking intracellular pathways critical in antigen recognition or other immune response elements. Immunosuppression can be induction, maintenance, or treatment, where induction entails giving immunosuppressants immediately after a transplant to prevent acute rejection, maintenance entails giving medication before or during a transplant with the aim of maintaining them, and treatment involves giving immunosuppressants to treat acute rejection. (Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example)  

Concepts of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders

• Common diseases and disorders that impact the Cardiovascular system

Some of the common diseases and disorders that impact the cardiovascular system include coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, and aortic disease. Others include arrhythmia, heart attack, and heart valve complications.(Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example)

• Common diseases and disorders that impact the Respiratory System

Common diseases and disorders that impact the respiratory system include influenza, pneumonia, and bronchitis. Others include chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), lung cancer, and asthma.(Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example)

• How these diseases and disorders relate to the pathophysiology of patients

In respiratory diseases, various factors relate to a patient’s pathophysiology. For instance, asthma, COPD, and pneumonia affect the airways leading to respiration problems. These diseases occur due to various factors, including organisms and viruses that enter the respiratory tract through droplet inhalation and invade the mucosa, leading to epithelial destruction, especially in illnesses like bronchiolitis. Infection and inflammation in the respiratory system can also occur due to epithelial and goblet cell damage and deposit in airways where they consolidate to cause impaired gaseous exchange, increasing breathing difficulty, hypoxia, and hypercarbia. In cardiovascular diseases, risk factors like unhealthy eating, cigarette smoking, and drinking excessive alcohol can cause high blood pressure due to increase, contributing to other diseases like heart disease, stroke, and heart failure.(Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example)

• Alterations in pathophysiology in adults and children with cardiovascular and respiratory disorders.

The major alterations in pathophysiology in adults and children with cardiovascular diseases include tissue oxygenation, structural alterations, and blood flow changes. For instance, adults with hypertension experience blood flow changes, increasing heart workload, which leads to enlarged heart muscle.(Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example) The disease is rare in children but can occur due to genetic factors. Coronary artery disease (CAD) develops when the blood vessels supplying the heart narrow or block. Adults experience CAD due to atherosclerosis and CAD in children is congenital. Regarding respiratory diseases, asthma in both children and adults causes bronchoconstriction, increased mucus production, and airway inflammation. However, triggers vary between adults and children. COPD is more common among adults, often due to extended periods of exposure to irritants like cigarette smoke or industry fumes. Both adults and children can experience pneumonia and bronchitis.  (Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example)   

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Alterations in the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems

• How does racial/ethnic variables impact physiological functioning in the Cardiovascular system?

Racial/ethnic differences are crucial considerations when assessing the cardiovascular system and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. For instance, Black men and women experience higher rates of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, with linked to higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure among this population. Moreover, African-American patients are more susceptible to heart disease and failure from non-ischemic causes. These differences are due to Black adults experiencing a higher burden of cardiovascular risk factors.(Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example)   

• How does racial/ethnic variables impact physiological functioning in the Respiratory system?

Racial/ethnic differences are crucial considerations when assessing the respiratory system and the risk of respiratory diseases. For instance, African Americans and Puerto Ricans experience higher rates of asthma due to a combination of genetic, environmental, and socioeconomic factors. Black and Hispanic groups are more likely to live in areas with more air pollution, allergens, and socioeconomic disparities, increasing the risk of COPD. Cultural practices and beliefs around behaviors like cigarette smoking can influence the difference in the risk of respiratory diseases.(Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example)

• What is the impact of patient characteristics on disorders and altered physiology of the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems?

Patient characteristics significantly influence disorders and altered physiology of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how these characteristics influence disease development and progression. For instance, older age increases the manifestation of certain disorders and altered physiology. Older patients are at increased risk of developing heart disease, CAD, asthma, and COPD.(Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example) Younger age is also a factor in diseases like pneumonia. Gender differences impact the prevalence of diseases. For instance, the female gender is linked to a higher incidence of asthma. Also, the increased number of females who smoke has led to an increase in COPD incidence among women. The differences in lifestyles, for instance eating fatty and sugary foods among some groups, increase the risk of developing diseases like diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and heart disease.   (Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example)    

Concepts of Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Disorders

• Common GI and Hepatobiliary disorders and the pathophysiological nature of these issues in patients:

Ulcers

Hepatitis markers

After HP shots

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Pancreatitis Liver failure—acute and chronic

Gall bladder disease

Inflammatory bowel disease

Diverticulitis

Jaundice

Bilirubin

Gastrointestinal bleed – upper and lower

Hepatic encephalopathy

Intra-abdominal infections (e.g., appendicitis)

Renal blood flow

Glomerular filtration rate

Kidney stones

Infections – urinary tract infections, pyelonephritis

Acute kidney injury

Renal failure – acute and chronic

 • How does patient characteristics such as racial and ethnic variables impact altered physiology?

Patient chrematistics such as racial and ethnic variables play a key role in altered physiology. There are inherent differences in races that impact physiology. The underlying differences can be environmental, genetic, or a combination of these variables. Racial/ethnic differences have been established, including considerable resistance among black kidney and liver transplant patients to immunosuppression. (Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example)Besides race and ethnic variables, other patient characteristics include genetics, where genetic factors can predispose people to particular illnesses or alter their physiological processes. For instance, genetic variations impact enzyme activity, receptor function, and the body’s ability to properly metabolize medications. Additionally, particular genetic mutations can increase the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Pre-existing medical conditions can predispose an individual to particular disorders are altered physiological responses. For instance, diabetic patients can struggle to heal their wounds, increasing the risk of infections.(Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example)    

• The pathophysiological structure, function, and alterations in Renal, Urinary, and GI functions as they relate to children and adults.

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The kidney regulates plasma osmolarity by modulating the water, solutes, and electrolyte amounts in the blood, ensuring an acid-base balance and producing erythropoietin that stimulates red blood cell production. The difference in maturation between adults and children is integral to the differences in pathophysiological structure, function, and alterations in renal, urinary, GI functions. For instance, the capacity of drug-metabolizing enzymes and kidney function differ due to organ maturation and development, causing differences in pathophysiological structure, function, and alterations. Additionally, renal function changes with age due to progressive decreases in glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow. It is a sign of an aging kidney that increases the risk of older adults to kidney disease and failure. Other alterations in renal, urinary, and GI function are associated with vascular dysautonomia, altered tubular handling of creatine, reduced sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion.   (Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example)

Concepts of Endocrine Disorders

• Common endocrine disorders and their disease processes and the pathophysiological nature of these issues in patients:

Diabetes

Hyper- and hypothyroidism

Adrenal disorders

Parathyroidism (hyper and hypo)

Checks & balances / negative feedback

Syndrome of Inappropriate

Antidiuretic Hormone

Pheochromocytosis

Diabetes insipidus

Diabetic ketoacidosis

• How does patient characteristics such as racial and ethnic variables impact altered physiology?

The physiology is influenced in part by patient characteristics including race and ethnicity. Race-related differences have an impact on physiology. The underlying variations may be caused by genetics, the environment, or any combination of these factors. Racial/ethnic variations explain the difference in incidence, prevalence, mortality, and burden of diseases among particular ethnic and racial groups. For instance, non-Hispanic blacks report worse outcomes and higher mortality for disorders like diabetes and thyroid cancer. Black people also have a higher incidence of obesity which is a key contributor to diabetes risk. Also, the prevalence of diabetes is highest among Indians, Alaska Natives, and non-Hispanic blacks. The differences in incidence and prevalence of disease among the various ethnic and racial groups imply that racial and ethnic variables play a key role in altered physiology or how different people respond to diseases and disease progress. (Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example)

ethnic variables affect
Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example 3

• The pathophysiological mechanics and alterations in hormonal regulations in children and adults

Chemical factors like calcium and glucose levels, endocrine factors, and neural factors like stress-induced release of catecholamines regulate hormone release, all through the process of negative feedback. The endocrine system creates and controls hormones in children and adults. Hormones in turn regulate every body function. The system is tightly regulated, therefore, any alterations in the regulations can be implicated in endocrine disorders because the released hormones can impact other organs. Manifestations of endocrine disorders are due to the effects of hormones on their target tissues, often marked by insufficient or excessive effects of these hormones. The differences in the amount of hormones between children and adults can explain the differences in the manifestations of individual endocrine disorders. Notably, most endocrine disorders are linked with psychological disturbances, and conversely, psychological elements trigger changes in hormonal activity, for instance, adrenal and thyroid hormones. (Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example)  

• Pathophysiological (Not Clear)

Reference

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

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