Contributions of Parents and Peers Make In the Moral and Cognitive Development of Adolescents Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example

Contributions of Parents and Peers Make In the Moral and Cognitive Development of Adolescents Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example

During adolescence, changes in the brain interrelate with knowledge gained, experiences, social demands, individual perceptions of their world, producing rapid cognitive development. Adolescents experience tremendous changes in how they think, reason, and understand their world, which sometimes can be more dramatic than their visible physical changes. Piaget describes cognitive development during adolescence as the formal operational stage, characterized by a significant shift from thinking and reasoning locally and concretely about visual events to logical thinking about abstract things. They can logically assess situations to determine cause and effect and consider multiple possibilities and perspectives in decision making and problem-solving (Graber & Petersen, 2017). They can start thinking about their future, examine alternatives, and develop personal goals. However, there are individual cognitive development differences among adolescents. Adolescents’ moral development is critical and in a constant test throughout puberty as they become increasingly independent. They develop more nuanced reasoning concerning morality and its role in real-life situations, often going along with peer pressure to act in specific ways. Parents and peers influence adolescents’ moral and cognitive development in multiple ways.( Contributions of Parents and Peers Make In the Moral and Cognitive Development of Adolescents Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Contributions of Parents and Peers Make In the Moral and Cognitive Development of Adolescents Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example
Contributions of Parents and Peers Make In the Moral and Cognitive Development of Adolescents Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example 1

There is an increase in parent-adolescent hostility, specifically during early adolescence. Many adolescents experience social anxiety symptoms and act aggressively to parental intrusiveness, increasing hostility. Intrusive parents have significant implications for parent-adolescent relationships, impacting adolescent cognitive and moral development (Weymouth & Buehler, 2016). During adolescence, parents’ relationships with their children affect how they develop a sense of right and wrong. The parenting style each parent uses affects each adolescent’s cognitive development. Both the mother and the father can shape the adolescents’ moral and cognitive development through their relationships, which they can extend through meals, activities, meetings, rituals, responsibilities, and rules. Continuity in the parent-child relationship affects how adolescents adjust to their environment as they grow. For instance, positive maternal behavior is associated with adolescents’ development of prosocial behavior. However, maternal ridicule and anger predict negative parental and peer interactions. Consistent and situational parenting styles are associated with positive moral and cognitive development.( Contributions of Parents and Peers Make In the Moral and Cognitive Development of Adolescents Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

See also  Asthma

Most parents question their parenting style, which includes authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive, and each has a unique influence on the adolescents’ moral and cognitive development. Parents often utilize their parents’ parenting styles to discipline them, but sometimes they can use others depending on their understanding of parenting. Parenting styles that allow adequate adolescent autonomy, nurture, and responsibility are associated with positive adolescents’ cognitive development. Parental culture, beliefs, and practices also affect their child-rearing practices and principles that, in turn, influence their children’s thought processes (Soenens et al., 2019). Authoritative parents offer their children warmth, autonomy, active attention, with limits and demands. They promote adolescents’ independence and individualism, engaging them in discussing phenomena, concepts, and family decisions. They invite their children to give their viewpoints and offer sensitive guidance. There are rules and limits, choices, power distribution, and fostering self-control in adolescents by discussing feelings and alternatives to discourage misbehavior. This parenting style is influential in shaping the adolescent’s moral and cognitive development, and it is associated with high self-esteem, confidence, social maturity, task persistence, desirable academic achievement.( Contributions of Parents and Peers Make In the Moral and Cognitive Development of Adolescents Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Peers strongly influence adolescents’ cognitive development because of teens’ increasing amount of time with their peers. According to research, peer stimuli sensitizes the adolescents’ reward system, encouraging them to respond to the reward value of risky behavior. However, as adolescents grow, they develop a higher capacity to resist peer influence. Research studies on cognitive processes associated with risk reasoning and perception show a relationship between social and emotional factors and adolescents’ neurocognition. There is a significant remodeling of the socio-emotional reward system during early adolescence, making adolescents susceptible to peer influence. Friends have a substantial role in the teens’ life, sometimes more than the parent (Brauer & De Coster, 2015). Adolescents develop an ability to reason logically and abstractly, recognizing that other people, including their parents, create the rules. This perception makes them rely more on the practices and beliefs they develop with their peers in a peer group of influence. It is typical to find a group of teens with norms, acceptable behavior, and beliefs that they strongly believe in and adhere to with consequences of going astray. Studies have shown that peer pressure impacts the brain signals associated with the risk and reward department, especially around peers. ( Contributions of Parents and Peers Make In the Moral and Cognitive Development of Adolescents Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

See also  Emerging Areas of Human Health-Aging Comprehensive Solved Nursing Essay Example

Peers or members of a peer group are highly likely to influence an individual’s beliefs and behaviors. Spending more time with peers means that adolescents have less adult supervision, and the communication shifts during their involvement with peers. According to Andrews et al. (2020), peer influence is a primary contributor to teens’ risky behavior. Although most peer groups encourage adolescents to engage in risky behavior, some peer groups provide an environment adolescents can gain valuable insights into social responsibility and learn to maintain social norms and behaviors, practicing them (Williams & Anthony, 2015). Peer pressure can also promote socioemotional competence, leading to positive social and emotional behavior and practices.  ( Contributions of Parents and Peers Make In the Moral and Cognitive Development of Adolescents Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)  

Contributions of Parents and Peers Make In the Moral and Cognitive Development of Adolescents Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example
Contributions of Parents and Peers Make In the Moral and Cognitive Development of Adolescents Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example 2

References

Andrews, J. L., Foulkes, L., & Blakemore, S. J. (2020). Peer influence in adolescence: Public-health implications for COVID-19. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 24(8), 585-587.( Contributions of Parents and Peers Make In the Moral and Cognitive Development of Adolescents Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Brauer, J. R., & De Coster, S. (2015). Social relationships and delinquency: Revisiting parent and peer influence during adolescence. Youth & Society, 47(3), 374-394.( Contributions of Parents and Peers Make In the Moral and Cognitive Development of Adolescents Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Graber, J. A., & Petersen, A. C. (2017). Cognitive changes at adolescence: Biological perspectives. Brain Maturation & Cognitive Development, 253-280.( Contributions of Parents and Peers Make In the Moral and Cognitive Development of Adolescents Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., & Beyers, W. (2019). Parenting adolescents.( Contributions of Parents and Peers Make In the Moral and Cognitive Development of Adolescents Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

See also  Prevalent Tobacco Product Use Among Adolescents Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example

Weymouth, B. B., & Buehler, C. (2016). Adolescent and Parental Contributions to Parent-Adolescent Hostility Across Early Adolescence. Journal of youth and adolescence, 45(4), 713–729. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-015-0348-3( Contributions of Parents and Peers Make In the Moral and Cognitive Development of Adolescents Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Williams, L. R., & Anthony, E. K. (2015). A model of positive family and peer relationships on adolescent functioning. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(3), 658-667.( Contributions of Parents and Peers Make In the Moral and Cognitive Development of Adolescents Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

Contributions of Parents and Peers Make In the Moral and Cognitive Development of Adolescents Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example
Contributions of Parents and Peers Make In the Moral and Cognitive Development of Adolescents Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example 3

A Page will cost you $12, however, this varies with your deadline. 

We have a team of expert nursing writers ready to help with your nursing assignments. They will save you time, and improve your grades. 

Whatever your goals are, expect plagiarism-free works, on-time delivery, and 24/7 support from us.  

Here is your 15% off to get started. 
Simply:

  • Place your order (Place Order
  • Click on Enter Promo Code after adding your instructions  
  • Insert your code –  Get20

All the Best, 

Cathy, CS

Have a subject expert Write for You Now

Have a subject expert finish your paper for You

Edit My Paper For Me

Have an Expert Write Your Dissertation's Chapter

What You'll Learn