Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation of a Pediatric Patient with Major Depressive Disorder Nursing Paper Sample
Patient Initials: G.T.
Accompanying Adult: Mother
CC: “I do not like my life, and I do not like people as I used to.”
HPI: A 15-year-old Latina patient arrived at the clinic with complaints about her recent mood and feelings. The patient reports that she has been perplexed lately by her mood. She is not happy, and the majority of the things she is doing no longer interest her. The client is not exercising as often as she used to because she gets weary fast. She has been rather quiet the past month. Her sadness and exhaustion make it difficult for her to engage in schoolwork and family activities. She observed that she was no longer as successful or quick at performing regular tasks and domestic chores. The patient reports being easily agitated, distracted, and irritable. Due to these issues, she only gets approximately 3–4 hours of sleep per day. She has observed both a shift in her appetite and a gradual loss of weight. The patient denies having depressive symptoms despite having a bad mood, isolating herself from friends and family and having decreased activity. She acknowledges feeling more pressured and anxious lately, but an anxiety disorder has not been assessed or diagnosed. Her momentary state has led to several arguments and conflicts with family and friends. (Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation of a Pediatric Patient with Major Depressive Disorder Nursing Paper Sample)
Social History: G.T. and her parents moved to America from the Caribbean when she was eight years old. She just turned fifteen. She and her family are currently residing in Texas.
Education and Occupation History: G.T. is in high school.
Substance Current Use and History: The client denies any history of substance abuse.
Legal History: The client denies any legal history.
Family Psychiatric/Substance Use History: Denied family mental health or substance use issues. Reports father using alcohol during the weekends, about three beers a day, Saturday and Sunday. (Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation of a Pediatric Patient with Major Depressive Disorder Nursing Paper Sample)
Past Psychiatric History:
Hospitalization: Denies previous hospitalization.
Medication trials: Denies history of medical trails
Psychotherapy or Previous Psychiatric Diagnosis: Denies previous psychiatric evaluation
Medical History: Childhood pneumonia when she was 6.
- Current Medications: Denies current medication.
- Allergies: Reports being allergic to aspirin, developing itchy rashes.
- Reproductive Hx: Not sexually active.
General: States progressive weight loss and occasional feelings of weakness and fatigue. Denies fever.
HEENT: Eyes: Patient denies visual loss, blurred vision, double vision, or yellow sclerae. Ears, Nose, Throat: No hearing loss, sneezing, congestion, runny nose, or sore throat.
Skin: No rash or itching.
Cardiovascular: Denies chest pain, chest pressure, or chest discomfort. No palpitations or edema.
Respiratory: Denies wheezes, shortness of breath, consistent coughs, and breathing difficulties while resting.
Gastrointestinal: The patient reports diet changes, feelings of nausea and vomiting. Denies diarrhea. No abdominal pain or blood. Patient reports experiencing constipation.
Genitourinary: Denies burning on urination, urgency, hesitancy, odor, odd color
Neurological: The patient reports frequent headaches and denies dizziness, syncope, paralysis, ataxia, numbness, or tingling in the extremities. No change in bowel or bladder control. Reports concentration and attention difficulties. (Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation of a Pediatric Patient with Major Depressive Disorder Nursing Paper Sample)
Musculoskeletal: The patient reports occasional muscle pain and weakness. Denies back pain and muscle or joint stiffness.
Hematologic: Denies anemia, bleeding, or bruising.
Lymphatics: Denies enlarged nodes. No history of splenectomy.
Endocrinologic: Denies sweating. No reports of cold or heat intolerance. No polyuria or polydipsia.
Vital signs: Stable
O2: Room air
Ht: 5’8 feet
Wt: 135 lbs
BMI Range: Healthy weight
Lab findings WNL
Tox screen: Negative
General appearance: The patient is appears well-fed and nourished. The patient is well groomed. The patient addressed the interviewer in a polite and regular manner. She expressed a depressed mood and disappointed with self. The patient has impaired concentration and attention, impairing clinical assessment.
HEENT: Normocephalic and atraumatic. Sclera anicteric, No conjunctival erythema, PERRLA, oropharynx red, moist mucous membranes.
Neck: Supple. No JVD. Trachea midline. No pain, swelling, or palpable nodules.
Heart/Peripheral Vascular: Regular rate and rhythm noted. No murmurs. No palpitation. No peripheral edema to palpation bilaterally.
Cardiovascular: The patient’s heartbeat and rhythm are normal. The patient’s heart rate is within normal range, and capillaries refill within two seconds.
Musculoskeletal: Normal range of motion. Regular muscle mass for age. No signs of swelling or joint deformities. Muscle and back pain rated 3/10.
Respiratory: No wheezes, and respirations are easy and regular.
Neurological: Balance is stable, gait is normal, posture is erect, the tone is good, and speech is clear. The patient has frequent headaches.
Psychiatric: The patient has a depressed mood, irritability, insomnia, and impaired concentration and attention.
Neuropsychological testing: Social-emotional functioning is impaired.
Behavior/motor activity: Patient behavior was appropriate and constant throughout the assessment
Mood: Depressed mood.
Affect: The patient’s mood was depressed.
Thought process/associations: comparatively linear and goal-directed.
Thought content: Thought content was appropriate.
Attitude: the patient was uncooperative at times
Orientation: Oriented to self, place, situation, and general timeframe.
Attention/concentration: Impaired (Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation of a Pediatric Patient with Major Depressive Disorder Nursing Paper Sample)
Remote memory: Good
Short-term memory: Good
Intellectual /cognitive function: Good
Language: clear speech, with a tone assessed to be normal
Fund of knowledge: Good.
Suicidal ideation: Positive but no plans.
Homicide ideation: Negative.
Mental Status Examination:
The 15-year-old female patient complained of feeling down recently when she first came in. She is oriented to self, place, situation, and general timeframe. Her insight is good, her judgement good, her memory and fund of knowledge good, and her speech was clear. The patient claims to get angry easily. The patient was occasionally uncooperative and had trouble focusing during the psychiatric examination, which made it challenging to build rapport. The patient had a depressing appearance and stated negative beliefs about her life and future, stating she feared not graduating from high school. She admits suicidal ideation but denies active plans. She denies any thoughts of homicide.
- F32.9 Major Depressive Disorder
Depression is marked by apathy and chronic sadness. All depressive disorders have the symptoms of melancholy, emptiness, irritation, and physical and psychological alterations that significantly restrict the patient’s ability to perform daily tasks (Chand et al., 2021). Patients who are depressed have notably lower interest in or excitement for nearly all endeavors for the majority of the day, essentially every day. According to the DMS-5 criteria, five of the following symptoms must be present for a diagnosis to be made: difficulty sleeping, loss of interest or pleasure, feelings of inadequacy or helplessness, fatigue or erratic energy, difficulties concentrating or paying attention, fluctuations in appetite or weight, psychomotor issues, suicidality, and depressed mood (Agostino et al., 2021). G.T. exhibits difficulties falling and staying asleep, a loss of interest in once-enjoyable activities like exercise, difficulty focusing and paying attention, changes in appetite and weight, suicidality, and depressed moods, all of which affirm MDD and satisfy the requirement for at least five symptoms outlined in the DSM-5 criteria. (Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation of a Pediatric Patient with Major Depressive Disorder Nursing Paper Sample)
- F40. 10 Social Anxiety Disorder
In social situations, people with MDD usually experience anxiety and worry a lot about what other people will think of them. As a result, during an assessment, patients usually disclose their social anxiety concerns. According to a study, 44%–74% of people with social anxiety disorder receive a diagnosis of major depressive disorder at some point in their lives (Langer et al., 2019). According to the DSM-5 criteria, a person must exhibit significant fear or anxiety in one or more social situations where they may be the target of others’ potential observation. The person is worried that their conduct could be misconstrued. Social occasions frequently cause more anxiety or fear than is warranted by the threat they offer. Therefore, out of worry or fear, individuals either completely shun them or put up with them. It often lasts no less than six months until the avoidance, dread, or concern seriously hinders or distresses one of the essential domains of functioning. It is irrelevant to compare this fear to the symptoms of another mental disorder or a drug’s side effects. If another medical issue is present, the worry, avoidance, or fear is excessive or unconnected (Rose & Tadi, 2021). Although the patient expresses her worries and fears, she does not show severe anxiety or fear per the criteria for diagnosing SAD, consequently, this diagnosis was disregarded. (Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation of a Pediatric Patient with Major Depressive Disorder Nursing Paper Sample)
- F50. 0 Anorexia Nervosa:
Major depression frequently co-occurs with the eating disorders bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa. In this circumstance, anorexia nervosa is more prevalent. Food intake limitations that are comparable to demands are its defining feature, which results in visibly low body weight (Van Eeden et al., 2021). People who suffer from this eating disorder will have a mistaken view of themselves, a fear of gaining weight, and difficulty realizing how serious their condition is. According to Gibson and Mehler (2019), patients have reported symptoms such as irregular menstruation, cold sensitivity, digestive problems, extremity edema, fatigue, and irritability. Patients talk about restrictive eating practices such as portion control, self-induced vomiting, and using laxatives or diuretics for purging (Moore & Bokor, 2022). Many people also exercise repeatedly and compulsively. Due to their extended fasting and purging, anorexic patients have many challenges. A patient must show an energy intake restriction compared to needs, leading to substantial loss of weight that is less than minimally projected given the patient’s age, sex, developmental trajectory, and physical health, in order to meet the DMS-5 criteria for anorexia nervosa. The patient must admit to having extreme anxiety about gaining weight, behaviors that limit weight increase, or fattening (Moore & Bokor, 2022). Before she became grumpy, according to G.T., she regularly exercised and controlled her diet. She says she has been eating less recently and that her appetite is bad. The diagnosis is ruled out because the patient does not practice restrictive dieting but has a poor appetite contributing to the loss of weight. Additionally, her frame is intact, and she seems well-nourished for an individual with an eating disorder. (Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation of a Pediatric Patient with Major Depressive Disorder Nursing Paper Sample)
There is a higher probability that major depressive illness may go untreated or receive incorrect care because it is frequently misdiagnosed and underrecognized. It is challenging to treat MDD patients because they typically lack drive, have little energy, are uncooperative, and are frequently agitated or angry. Due to the significant risk of relapse, treating this illness necessitates commitment from the patient and a strong support system. The majority of people with MDD deny ever experiencing depressive episodes and instead exhibit low mood, erratic energy, irritable mood, decreased activity, and disinterest. It makes treating MDD ethically difficult. Some of the specific ethical principles that apply to treating MDD include respect for persons, autonomy, truthfulness, nonmaleficence, nondisclosure, privacy, the need to protect, and beneficence. Yet these viewpoints are weighed and applied differently based on the situation and the degree of MDD. For instance, in cases of severe depression, pain management may be more crucial than promoting patient autonomy. Treatment refusal is a challenge while treating MDD because of the low motivation and low energy levels, which frequently clash with the principle of autonomy. This experience illuminates the impact MDD has on a patient’s life and reveals how it is connected to eating disorders and social anxiety. It is fundamental to identify the underlying issues, and I would go deeper into the patient’s mental health history if I were given a second chance to work with her. Additionally, I would like the parents to be present so that we can discuss how he thinks about her attitude and behavior as well as how the atmosphere at home affects the problem. (Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation of a Pediatric Patient with Major Depressive Disorder Nursing Paper Sample)
Case Formulation and Treatment Plan:
Combining pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy would significantly alleviate symptoms.
The patient says she had suicidal ideation bot no active plans. She has no homicidal ideation and does not have any current plans. The patient is not a threat to other people despite increased arguments and irritation. Admission is not required. (Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation of a Pediatric Patient with Major Depressive Disorder Nursing Paper Sample)
Antidepressants are an effective way to treat major depression and associated symptoms. Selected serotonin reuptake inhibitors like fluoxetine and citalopram should be administered to the patient as the first line of treatment (Agostino et al., 2021). Antidepressants will operate more efficiently with the help of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers to achieve the desired effects of improved mood and increased energy. (Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation of a Pediatric Patient with Major Depressive Disorder Nursing Paper Sample)
The patient will receive therapy for a few hours every three days for the first three weeks. Examining, analyzing, and reorganizing the essential components of the family environment will be made easier with the help of family-based psychotherapy. Cognitive behavioral therapy will increase positive behavior by addressing the negative emotions and feelings that give patients the impression that they are trapped in a negative cycle (Agostino et al., 2021). It will help the practitioner and patient identify challenging circumstances, become aware of their thoughts, feelings, and emotions as well as any corresponding beliefs, and modify destructive behavioral patterns.
- Educate the client on medication side effects, potential complications, and the need for medication adherence.
- Advise the client on the need to follow up with therapy sessions.
- Regularly evaluate withdrawal symptoms to avoid relapse.
- Educate the client regarding healthy lifestyle choices. (Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation of a Pediatric Patient with Major Depressive Disorder Nursing Paper Sample)
- Encourage the client to work with the healthcare team and seek help anytime.
- Advise the client to participate in a support group or group therapy to improve social skills.
Consultation/follow-up: Follow-up is in one week for further assessment. (Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation of a Pediatric Patient with Major Depressive Disorder Nursing Paper Sample)
Agostino, H., Burstein, B., Moubayed, D., Taddeo, D., Grady, R., Vyver, E., … & Coelho, J. S. (2021). Trends in the incidence of new-onset anorexia nervosa and atypical anorexia nervosa among youth during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada. JAMA network open, 4(12), e2137395-e2137395. (Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation of a Pediatric Patient with Major Depressive Disorder Nursing Paper Sample)
Chand, S. P., Arif, H., & Kutlenios, R. M. (2021). Depression (Nursing). In: StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing.
Gibson, D., & Mehler, P. S. (2019). Anorexia nervosa and the immune system—a narrative review. Journal of clinical medicine, 8(11), 1915.
Langer, J. K., Tonge, N. A., Piccirillo, M., Rodebaugh, T. L., Thompson, R. J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2019). Symptoms of social anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder: A network perspective. Journal of affective disorders, 243, 531–538. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.09.078 (Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation of a Pediatric Patient with Major Depressive Disorder Nursing Paper Sample)
Moore, C.A., & Bokor, B.R. (2022). Anorexia Nervosa. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing.
Rose, G. M., & Tadi, P. (2021). Social anxiety disorder. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing.
Van Eeden, A. E., van Hoeken, D., & Hoek, H. W. (2021). Incidence, prevalence and mortality of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Current opinion in psychiatry, 34(6), 515. (Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation of a Pediatric Patient with Major Depressive Disorder Nursing Paper Sample)