The Psychological disorders
The Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders helps in diagnosing psychological disorders by defining their features and symptoms. The psychological disorders in the DSM-5 have variations and numerous contributors, both biological and environmental. Major depressive disorders entail statistical deviance, personal distress, and maladaptiveness. The Criteria requires consideration for both cultural and developmental factors during the diagnosis of psychological disorders. Cultural and age differences determine normalcy or abnormality in different groups of people (The Psychological disorders).
Development Psychopathology tries to shift from the perception that psychological disorders are disease instances that one may or may not have. It provides that these disorders are the outcome of a development process. Consequently, development Psychopathology helps identify the origins and courses of maladaptive behavior. Moreover, development courses lead to typical and atypical development outcomes. Development Psychopathologists appreciate the contribution of social and cultural aspects to behaviors. People ought to behave in a particular manner in different social and cultural contexts. Considering these aspects remains vital while diagnosing behavioral and psychological disorders.
Nature and nurture, continuity, and discontinuity issues help trace development pathways. They help draw connections between biological, psychological, and social aspects and risk factors contributing to the development of a psychological disorder. Consequently, can occur at any stage in life, and some, like autism, begin in infancy. Biological maturation and the nurturing family environment affect infant development(The Psychological disorders).
Autism is typical in children, and the cases have been rising in the past few decades. Autism involves neurological abnormalities that affect brain functioning. Infants can also experience depression, but not to the extent of older children, adolescents, and adults. Babies can be depressed when abused, lack essential attachments, or when their parents are depressed. Development problems in children can either be externalizing, which entails a lack of self-control and displaying violent and disturbing behavior or internalizing, which includes phobia, severe shyness, withdrawal, and depression. The immediate social environment, nature, and nurture, strongly influence child development(The Psychological disorders).
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is also common in children and adolescents. Adolescents can experience storms of stress, problem behaviors, depression, and suicidal behavior. As they go through a transition from childhood to adulthood, they experience hormonal changes that affect behavior. Overwhelming stress leads to psychological disorders in adults. There is a relationship between age differences and rates of psychological disorders. Young adults are more vulnerable. Older adults experience psychological disorders like dementia and Alzheimer’s disease that are age-related. Age, gender, and ethnic differences influence depression instances(The Psychological disorders).