Biological and Environmental Factors Causing Development Delays and Physiological Problems Among International Adoptees Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example

Biological and Environmental Factors Causing Development Delays and Physiological Problems Among International Adoptees Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example

Internationally adopted children demonstrate development delays and more behavioral problems than non-adopted children primarily from adverse preadoption experiences and interaction between biological and environmental factors. Most significant physiological problems include communication and gross and fine motor development. Many research studies have concluded that genetics influence the development of complex diseases (Dalen & Theie, 2017). However, exposure to particular environmental factors also influences gene function. Environmental influences that involve nutrient deficiencies and lifestyle can interact with the adoptee’s genetic structures, causing development issues (Shankar et al., 2018). An interaction between preadoption environmental circumstances and special needs such as medical conditions can also alter the developmental trajectories of international adoptees (Welsh & Viana, 2018). Some children experience extreme deprivation before adoption, and when it is coupled with a medical condition, the children experience developmental delays and physiological problems.(Biological and Environmental Factors Causing Development Delays and Physiological Problems Among International Adoptees Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Biological and Environmental Factors Causing Development Delays and Physiological Problems Among International Adoptees Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example
Biological and Environmental Factors Causing Development Delays and Physiological Problems Among International Adoptees Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example 1

Research shows that specific environmental exposures like nutrient deficiencies can impact genetic expression. For instance, a child not getting enough nutrients might not grow tall, although they possess inherited genes for height. Interaction between genes and nutrient deficiencies affects healthy development (Shankar et al., 2018). Also, understanding diseases that develop after birth and after the child is brought into their new country requires understanding the mechanisms through which environmental exposures like nutrient deficiencies, lifestyles, and environmental toxicants alter cellular response leading to pathology. Environmental exposure and a genome interaction accumulate, contributing to a “unique disease.” Many international adoptees present unique diseases that manifest differently in every individual due to their genetic makeup and a history of exposure, such as nutrient deficiencies. The dichotomy between environmental exposures, in this case, nutrient deficiencies, and genetic function, is known to change in a complex interplay of nature through nurture (Shankar et al., 2018). The contemporary study of nutrition in health comprises one of the environment-gene interactions. Therefore, dietary patterns and individuals nutrient deficiencies can lead to delayed development and physiological problems.(Biological and Environmental Factors Causing Development Delays and Physiological Problems Among International Adoptees Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

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Pre-adoptive experiences include circumstances in the child’s birth country. Research shows that pre-adoptive experiences are associated with development variability among internationally adopted children. Birth countries vary in quality and care type available that affect the children placed on adoption. The children’s development is delayed and can result in complex physiological problems when these experiences are coupled with pre-existing medical conditions (Welsh & Viana, 2018). Children in their adoptive placement can experience severe deficiencies that affect their development. Research reveals a relationship between the duration of institutional stay and a child’s development catch-up rate. Children reared in orphanages experience significant deficits leading to adverse delayed physical growth and cognitive development than those brought up in foster care. Pre-adoptive experiences involving disorganized attachment can also lead to development adversities (Welsh & Viana, 2018). When pre-existing medical conditions interact with these pre-adoptive experiences, development delays and physiological problems such as communication delays and cognitive development become more adverse, extending into adolescence.(Biological and Environmental Factors Causing Development Delays and Physiological Problems Among International Adoptees Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Many development delays and physiological problems begin from childhood extending into adolescence. Several interventions can help prevent these issues early enough before they become dominant in an adolescent’s life. Environmental exposures like nutrient deficiencies can alter the genome function leading to physical growth problems (Shankar et al., 2018). Therefore, adopting parents should investigate the child’s gene inheritances and plan a dietary pattern and individual nutrients the child requires to accelerate their development after adoption. Proper nutrition is critical to child development and contributes to healthy development into adolescence (Haddad, 2020). The primary role of exposing a child to proper nutrition is to ensure their cellular networks are sufficiently supplied with nutrients and energies to optimize their functioning and flexibility. Nutrition sufficiency would also help address the ever-changing physical and psychological demands as individual transitions from childhood to adolescence.(Biological and Environmental Factors Causing Development Delays and Physiological Problems Among International Adoptees Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

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Children with adverse preadoption experiences remain significantly behind other children in their development (Welsh & Viana, 2018). However, sorting issues like disorganized attachment through parental love can help improve development domains linearly. It is also critical for parents to investigate pre-existing medical conditions and the status of their prior adoption placement areas, which are risk factors for various developmental and behavioral difficulties. Understanding this interaction allows parents to adopt relevant interventions such as physical and psychological therapy, which prevent these issues and help those facing them. (Biological and Environmental Factors Causing Development Delays and Physiological Problems Among International Adoptees Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Biological and Environmental Factors Causing Development Delays and Physiological Problems Among International Adoptees Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example
Biological and Environmental Factors Causing Development Delays and Physiological Problems Among International Adoptees Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example 2

References

Dalen, M., & Theie, S. (2017). Internationally adopted children from non-European countries: General development during the first two years in the adoptive family. The Scientific World Journal, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1100/2012/375436(Biological and Environmental Factors Causing Development Delays and Physiological Problems Among International Adoptees Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Haddad, D. (2020, August 31). Biological Factors That Influence Child Development. Retrieved from https://www.verywellfamily.com/biological-factors-affecting-child-development-2162219(Biological and Environmental Factors Causing Development Delays and Physiological Problems Among International Adoptees Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Shankar, K., Pivik, R. T., Johnson, S. L., van Ommen, B., Demmer, E., & Murray, R. (2018). Environmental forces that shape early development: What we know and still need to know. Current developments in nutrition, 2(8), nzx002. https://doi.org/10.3945/cdn.117.001826(Biological and Environmental Factors Causing Development Delays and Physiological Problems Among International Adoptees Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Welsh, J. A., & Viana, A. G. (2018). Developmental outcomes of internationally adopted children. Adoption Quarterly, 15(4), 241-264. https://doi.org/10.1080/10926755.2012.731029(Biological and Environmental Factors Causing Development Delays and Physiological Problems Among International Adoptees Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

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Biological and Environmental Factors Causing Development Delays and Physiological Problems Among International Adoptees Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example
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