1. Question : Which statement is true about fungal infections?
2. Question : Once they have penetrated the first line of defense, which microorganisms do neutrophils actively attack, engulf, and destroy by phagocytosis?
3. Question : After sexual transmission of HIV, a person can be infected yet seronegative for _____ months.
4. Question : What of the following remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide?
5. Question : Cells in _____ may act as a reservoir in which HIV can be relatively protected from antiviral drugs.
6. Question : Which statement about vaccines is true?
7. Question : The class of antibody involved in type I hypersensitivity reactions is
8. Question : In which primary immune deficiency is there a partial to complete absence of T-cell immunity?
9. Question : During an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction, what causes bronchospasm?
10. Question : Deficiencies in which element can produce depression of both B- and T-cell function?
11. Question : Hypersensitivity is best defined as a(n)
12. Question : In a type II hypersensitivity reaction, when soluble antigens from infectious agents enter circulation, tissue damage is a result of
13. Question : What is the mechanism in type III hypersensitivity reactions?
14. Question : During a stress response, increased anxiety, vigilance, and arousal is prompted by
15. Question : Stress-age syndrome results in decreased
16. Question : Which hormone increases the formation of glucose from amino acids and free fatty acids?
17. Question : What effect does estrogen have on lymphocytes?
18. Question : Intestinal polyps are benign neoplasms and the first stage in development of colon cancer. These findings support the notion that
19. Question : Which of the following cancers originate from connective tissue?
20. Question : Which of the viruses below are oncogenic DNA viruses?
21. Question : Cells from a muscle tumor show a reduced ability to form new muscle and appear highly disorganized. This is an example of
22. Question : Which of the following represents the correct nomenclature for benign and malignant tumors of adipose tissue, respectively?
23. Question : In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a piece of chromosome 9 fuses to a piece of chromosome 22. This is an example of which mutation of normal genes to oncogenes?
24. Question : Tobacco smoking is associated with cancers of all of the following except
25. Question : Childhood exposure to all of the following risk factors increases susceptibility to cancer except
1. Question: In hyperkalemia, cardiac rhythm changes are a direct result of cardiac cell hypopolarization.
2. Question: When thirst is experienced, how are osmoreceptors activated?
3. Question: Which are indications of dehydration?
4. Question: At the arterial end of capillaries, fluid moves from the intravascular space into the interstitial space because the interstitial hydrostatic pressure is higher than the capillary hydrostatic pressure.
5. Question: Which enzyme is secreted by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney when circulating blood volume is reduced?
6. Question: Why are infants susceptible to significant losses in total body water (TBW)?
7. Question: Physiologic pH is maintained around 7.4 because bicarbonate (HCO3) and carbonic acid (H2CO3) exist in a ratio of
8. Question: In ARDS, alveoli and respiratory bronchioles fill with fluid as a result of the compression on the pores of Kohn, thus preventing collateral ventilation.
9. Question: Dyspnea is not a result of
10. Question: Clinical manifestations of pulmonary hypertension include
11. Question: Pulmonary edema usually begins at a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure or left atrial pressure of _____ mm Hg.
12. Question: Clinical manifestations that include unexplained weight loss, dyspnea on exertion, use of accessory muscles, and tachypnea with prolonged expiration are indicative of
13. Question: Which pleural abnormality involves a site of pleural rupture that act as a one-way valve, permitting air to enter on inspiration but preventing its escape by closing during expiration?
14. Question: A(n) _____ is a circumscribed area of suppuration and destruction of lung parenchyma
15. Question: Which of the following is a true statement?
16. Question: High altitudes may produce hypoxemia through
17. Question: The most successful treatment for chronic asthma begins with
18. Question: In tuberculosis, the body walls off the bacilli in a tubercle by stimulating
19. Question: The release of fibroblast growth factors affects ARDS by causing
20. Question: An accurate description of childhood asthma is that it is a(n)
21. Question: What is the primary cause of RDS of the newborn?
22. Question: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by a(n)
23. Question: Chest wall compliance in infants is _____ in adults.
24. Question: Which of the following types of croup is most common?
25. Question: Which of the following statements about the advances in the treatment of RDS of the newborn is incorrect?
• Question 1. A 72-year-old woman with a recent onset of syncopal episodes has been referred to a cardiology group by her family physician. As part of the patient’s diagnostic workup, the nurse practitioner conducting the intake assessment has ordered a Holter monitor for 24 hours. Which of the following statements best captures an aspect of Holter monitoring?
• Question 2. As part of the diagnostic workup for a male patient with a complex history of cardiovascular disease, the care team has identified the need for a record of the electrical activity of his heart, insight into the metabolism of his myocardium, and physical measurements, and imaging of his heart. Which of the following series of tests is most likely to provide the needed data for his diagnosis and care?
• Question 3. An 81-year-old female patient of a long-term care facility has a history of congestive heart failure. The nurse practitioner caring for the patient has positioned her sitting up at an angle in bed and is observing her jugular venous distention. Why is jugular venous distention a useful indicator for the assessment of the patient’s condition?
• Question 4. A physical assessment of a 28-year-old female patient indicates that her blood pressure in her legs is lower than that in her arms and that her brachial pulse is weaker in her left arm than in her right. In addition, her femoral pulses are weak bilaterally. Which of the following possibilities would her care provider be most likely to suspect?
• Question 5. A 6-year-old boy has been brought to the emergency department by ambulance after his mother discovered that his heart rate was “so fast I couldn’t even count it.” The child was determined to be in atrial flutter and his mother is seeking an explanation from the health care team. Which of the following points should underlie an explanation to the mother?
• Question 6. A 66-year-old patient’s echocardiogram reveals a hypertrophied left ventricle, normal chamber volume, and a normal ejection fraction from the heart. What is this patient’s most likely diagnosis?