The Response of the US Maritime Industry to the New Container Initiatives Comprehensive Article Review

The Response of the US Maritime Industry to the New Container Initiatives Comprehensive Article Review

The article reviewed in this essay is a report titled “The Response of the US Maritime Industry to the New Container Initiatives” by Marc Thibault, Mary R. Brooks, and Kenneth J. Button. The 11-page article was published in the winter of 2006 in volume 25 of the Transportation Journal. The article examines how companies participating in the maritime container trade in the United States reacted to new security measures. This followed a response by the international maritime community’s on the hypothetical and actual security concerns and challenges that indicated a potential terror attack on maritime infrastructure and the consequential disruption of the global supply chain economy.(The Response of the US Maritime Industry to the New Container Initiatives Comprehensive Article Review)

The Response of the US Maritime Industry to the New Container Initiatives Comprehensive Article Review
The Response of the US Maritime Industry to the New Container Initiatives Comprehensive Article Review 1

In response to these issues, the international maritime community adopted the International Ship and Port Facility Code (ISPS Code) in 2002, which outlined compulsory security measures that states, shipping firms, and terminal operators would take to improve the security of the maritime transport system. Consequently, the US respond by enacting the US Maritime Transport Security Act in 2004. Besides, the USA established additional security necessities, including the 96- and 24-hour regulations and the launching of the Customs-Trade Partnership against Terrorism (C-TPAT).(The Response of the US Maritime Industry to the New Container Initiatives Comprehensive Article Review)

The central theme of the immigration policy highlighted in this article is inadequate custom inspection and security measures. For the United States, the security of the maritime supply chain faced a significant policy problem.  Illegal immigrants often exploit weak entry points into a target country. The article showed that there was inadequate security inspection of containers. In this sense, immigrants from different parts would have used the marine transportation system to gain unguarded entry into the US.(The Response of the US Maritime Industry to the New Container Initiatives Comprehensive Article Review)

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The authors conducted research from which a report was written. The central research question for the study was incorporated into the research purpose, which was to gain insight into senior shipping executives’, port officials,’ and marine terminal security officers’ views and perceptions of the adopted US security guidelines. An inductive and qualitative approach was adopted, involving two surveys. One survey was conducted on ports and terminals, while the other was conducted on container lines. The authors also employed telephone and site visit interviews to obtain information.(The Response of the US Maritime Industry to the New Container Initiatives Comprehensive Article Review)

The article’s authors argued that the theoretical and actual security concerns were attributed to the security loopholes in the maritime transport system. For instance, only 2 to 4 percent of the maritime cargo was inspected by US customs before 2001. Besides, there was significant port congestion such that there could have been difficulty mitigating incidences leading to disruption or stoppage of the marine container transportation system from a security breach. Besides, the authors argued that the maritime community was pleased with government cooperation on security issues.(The Response of the US Maritime Industry to the New Container Initiatives Comprehensive Article Review)

The authors found out that there were genuine concerns about the potential threat posed by the impact of terrorism on the social and economic aspects globally. As such, the various container lines responded to the new maritime security requirements, making adjustments to better manage operations through the education of government officials, customers, and the public. The authors also found out that the container lines knew a need to establish maritime security funding from the government or by enforcement of fees on firms participating in the container trade to fund the new security measures. In this sense, there was a need to improve the cost-effectiveness and cooperation with the US government. On the other hand, the authors found out that the container lines had challenges meeting the new maritime security requirements. Some interviewees argued that security measures were onerous and expensive. In contrast, others argued that the new security requirements were undemanding and the financial requirements were achievable.(The Response of the US Maritime Industry to the New Container Initiatives Comprehensive Article Review)

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The article has significant implications for immigration policy. There is a need for more cooperation among local and international shipping industry players. Notably, there were no frameworks for cooperation on security issues, particularly security policies and funding for the new security requirements. The USA had to rely on a partnership with industry players on security interventions. This is seen from the divergent opinions on the matter whereby big container lines disagreed with the financial prospects of the new security requirements. In contrast, the smaller container lines believed that the new security requirements are feasible(The Response of the US Maritime Industry to the New Container Initiatives Comprehensive Article Review).

It was learned from the article that the Maritime transportation system is vulnerable to terrorist attacks. However, the shipping industry had made significant efforts to improve security concerns. Equally, the US government had done an excellent job balancing the concerns posed by industry and the need for better logistics security. However, the comprehensive implementation of the new maritime security measures was yet to be achieved. This is because the US government had not yet decided how long-term maritime safety would be financed. Besides, the shipping industry was concerned that without government funding, security efforts would have been futile.(The Response of the US Maritime Industry to the New Container Initiatives Comprehensive Article Review)

The information herein is crucial and can be used by homeland security in various ways to mitigate illegal immigration. First, illegal immigration is often associated with terrorism and insecurity activities. The article highlights the limited jurisdiction the US has over international container trade and the inadequate physical inspection of containers at USA ports. It is crucial to note that terrorists can hide as illegal immigrants and carry out terror within the USA. Through this information, homeland security can establish working security ties with trading nations and entities to ensure that illegal immigration is controlled. Besides, homeland security can use the information to develop various container inspection measures since the article mentions a mere 2 – 4% inspection rate of around millions of containers used in trade.(The Response of the US Maritime Industry to the New Container Initiatives Comprehensive Article Review)

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The Response of the US Maritime Industry to the New Container Initiatives Comprehensive Article Review
The Response of the US Maritime Industry to the New Container Initiatives Comprehensive Article Review

References

Thibault, M., Brooks, M. R., & Button, K. J. (2006). The response of the US maritime industry to the new container security initiatives. (The Response of the US Maritime Industry to the New Container Initiatives Comprehensive Article Review)Transportation Journal, 5-15. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20713622

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