Sickle Cell Disease Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example

Sickle Cell Disease Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example

Sickle cell disease is one of the most common genetic disorders in the United States, affecting about 100,000 Americans, especially African American descent, and more than 20 million people globally (Sanyaolu et al., 2020). The condition belongs to a group of hemoglobinopathies that entail mutations in the gene that encodes the beta subunit of the hemoglobin. The mutation results in the formation of abnormal hemoglobin molecules that make the red blood cells assume a crescent shape blocking tiny blood vessels while having a shorter life span than normal red blood cells. However, the mutation has a survival advantage for individuals residing in malaria-endemic regions since they carry a sickle cell trait or one copy of the mutated gene, reducing the chance of developing malaria. As such, the sickle cell trait gene positively affects people living in areas with a high malaria prevalence. This discussion highlights how genetic isolation, genetic drift, and genetic flow affect the sickle cell disease frequency in African Americans.(Sickle Cell Disease Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Sickle Cell Disease Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example
Sickle Cell Disease Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example 1

Genetic isolation refers to when a population of organisms does not interbreed or has little genetic mixing with organisms in the same species from geographical isolation or other factors that limit reproduction. Genetic isolation results in speciation, but that is not always the case. It also influences sickle cell disease frequency in African Americans. In this case, people in malaria-endemic areas have the sickle cell gene increasing their survival chances and reproduction. Thus, high reproduction increases the sickle cell gene frequency in the population. However, people with sickle cell gene in regions without malaria do not have the same survival chances leading to a lower sickle cell gene frequency.(Sickle Cell Disease Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

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Subsequently, genetic drift relates to that change in a population’s existing gene variant frequency due to a random chance. It reduces gene variation by the disappearance of the gene variants wholly or causing rare alleles to be much more fixed and frequent (Miles et al., 2019). Genetic drift notably influences the disorder’s frequency, especially in small populations. For example, genetic drift can cause a high sickle cell disease frequency among isolated individuals/groups with high sickle cell trait prevalence. Moreover, genetic flow leads to gene movement between populations through interbreeding and migration. As such, genetic flow can influence that sickle cell disease frequency among individuals that migrate from areas with high malaria prevalence to regions without malaria. Lastly, the migration of people with sickle cell and interbreeding with people that do not carry the gene are likely to increase the sickle cell gene frequency in the new population.(Sickle Cell Disease Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

References

Miles, L. S., Rivkin, L. R., Johnson, M. T., Munshi‐South, J., & Verrelli, B. C. (2019). Gene flow and genetic drift in urban environments. Molecular Ecology28(18), 4138-4151(Sickle Cell Disease Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example). https://doi.org/10.1111/MEC.15221

Sanyaolu, A., Agiri, E., Bertram, C., Brookes, L., Choudhury, J., Datt, D., … & Williams, M. (2020). Current modalities of sickle cell disease management. Blood Science2(04), 109-116. (Sickle Cell Disease Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)https://doi.org/10.1097%2FBS9.0000000000000056

Topic 3 DQ 2

DNP-prepared nurses possess the knowledge, skills, and competency to provide quality care in different clinical settings. Nonetheless, they should adapt, modify or develop genetic and genomic information based on the patient’s specific culture, religion, literacy, and preferred language for improved patient outcomes. First, the nurse should consider cultural considerations that entail the patient’s cultural values, beliefs, and practices. In this case, the nurse should use culturally-acceptable language, respect cultural preferences and norms, and incorporate some of the patient’s traditional practices. The patient’s culture is vital to foster trust and compliance with the genetic and genomic information provided (Balante et al., 2021). For instance, some communities have traditional healing practices associated with beliefs about health and illness. Therefore, the nurse should respect such practices while providing information about genetics and genomics.(Sickle Cell Disease Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

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Secondly, there is a need for the nurse to respect the patient’s religious values and beliefs, relaying the information. The nurse should be sensitive to moral and ethical issues arising while providing the information to ensure they align with the patient’s religious beliefs. For instance, some religions have certain beliefs about genetic tests involving family planning. As such, the nurse should be aware of such beliefs and provide information while respecting religious values and beliefs. Some patients also have religious beliefs and practices concerning health. For instance, some people pray and meditate to seek health and recovery. Therefore, the nurse should incorporate such practices while providing genetic and genomic information.(Sickle Cell Disease Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Subsequently, the nurse should assess the patient’s literacy levels to inform them how to package and pass the genetic and genomic information successfully. Depending on the patient’s literacy levels, the nurse should use simple medical terms and consider using visual aid or translators to ensure the patient comprehends the information presented (Durst & Mills, 2020). Concerning the preferred language, the nurse should use clear language and avoid complex medical terminologies that may limit the patient’s understanding of providing genetic concepts. The nurse may also consider using analogies that are culturally relevant to the patient, which aids them to grasp complex concepts concerning genetics and genomics.(Sickle Cell Disease Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Sickle Cell Disease Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example
Sickle Cell Disease Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example 2

References

Balante, J., van den Broek, D., & White, K. (2021). Mixed‐methods systematic review: Cultural attitudes, beliefs, and practices of internationally educated nurses towards end‐of‐life care in the context of cancer. Journal of Advanced Nursing77(9), 3618-3629(Sickle Cell Disease Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example). https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.14814

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Durst, A. L., & Mills, R. (2020). Education in Genetic Counseling: The Impacts of Genetic Literacy and Adult Learning. Genetic Counseling Practice: Advanced Concepts and Skills, 271-315. (Sickle Cell Disease Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119529873.ch13

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