Short Answer Assessment Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example

Short Answer Assessment Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example

Explain the appropriate drug therapy for a patient who presents with MDD and a history of alcohol abuse. Which drugs are contraindicated if any, and why? Be specific. What is the timeframe that the patient should see a resolution of symptoms?

The appropriate drug therapy for a client presenting an MMD disorder and PMH of drug dependence would be an integrated treatment of Sertraline 25mg plus naltrexone 50mg orally daily. The client’s symptoms would reduce significantly after four weeks. Sertraline plus naltrexone combination have been proven to produce higher alcohol abstinence rates, longer days before relapse, and complete reduction of depressive disorder without serious adverse events (Pettinati et al., 2010). It is contraindicated that clients taking Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) such as Sertraline be monitored during the early stages of medication for emergent suicide ideation, agitation, behavioral changes, or manic episodes as indications of poor response that warrants medication adjustments (The Anxiety and Depression Association of America, 2020).(Short Answer Assessment Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

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Short Answer Assessment Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example
Short Answer Assessment Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example

List 4 predictors of late-onset generalized anxiety disorder.

Predictors of late-onset GAD include (Zhang et al., 2015):

  1. Gender, particularly being female
  2. Chronic physical and mental health disorders
  3. Loss of a parent through death/divorce/separation
  4. Reduced affective childhood support(The Anxiety and Depression Association of America, 2020).(Short Answer Assessment Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

List 4 potential neurobiology causes of psychotic major depression.

According to Aan het Rot et al. (2009), the major neurobiological causes of psychotic MDD relate to the serotonin and dopamine system changes. This includes a complex interaction between serotonin dysfunction, stress hypersensitivity, and dopamine dysfunction. These factors include:(The Anxiety and Depression Association of America, 2020).(Short Answer Assessment Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

  1. Psychosocial adversity in childhood
  2. Dysfunctional regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
  3. Abnormal brain activation patterns
  4. Neurobiological abnormalities underlying brain atrophy

An episode of major depression is defined as a period lasting at least two weeks. List at least five symptoms required for the episode to occur. Be specific.

According to the American Psychiatric Association, symptoms required for an episode of MDD to occur include (APA, 2013):

  1. Depressed mood for the greater part of the day and almost every day
  2. Minimal pleasure/interest in carrying out almost every daily routine every day
  3. Substantial weight change, decrease/increase in appetite when not dieting for a significant portion of the day and almost every day(The Anxiety and Depression Association of America, 2020).(Short Answer Assessment Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)
  4. Fatigue/energy loss for the greater part of the day and almost every day
  5. Minimal thinking/concentrating ability or inappropriate guilt for the greater part of the day and almost every day
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List 3 classes of drugs, with a corresponding example for each class, that precipitate insomnia. Be specific.

There many classes of drugs recommended for the treatment of insomnia. Three of these classes include (Lie et al., 2015):

  1. Sedative-Hypnotics for example, Zolpidem
  2. Antidepressants, for example, Doxepin(The Anxiety and Depression Association of America, 2020).(Short Answer Assessment Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)
  3. Dual Orexin Receptor Antagonists, for example, Suvorexant.
Short Answer Assessment Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example
Short Answer Assessment Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example 1

References

Aan Het Rot, M., Mathew, S. J., & Charney, D. S. (2009). Neurobiological mechanisms in major depressive disorder. Cmaj180(3), 305-313(The Anxiety and Depression Association of America, 2020).(Short Answer Assessment Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2630359/ 

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) (5 ends). American Psychiatric Association, 21. Retrieved 23 March 2021, from. (The Anxiety and Depression Association of America, 2020).(Short Answer Assessment Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)https://www.psycom.net/depression-definition-dsm-5-diagnostic-criteria/

Lie, J. D., Tu, K. N., Shen, D. D., & Wong, B. M. (2015). Pharmacological treatment of insomnia. Pharmacy and Therapeutics40(11), 759. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4634348/

Pettinati, H. M., Oslin, D. W., Kampman, K. M., Dundon, W. D., Xie, H., Gallis, T. L., … & O’Brien, C. P. (2010). A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial combining Sertraline and naltrexone for treating co-occurring depression and alcohol dependence. American Journal of Psychiatry167(6), 668-675. (The Anxiety and Depression Association of America, 2020).(Short Answer Assessment Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)https://doi.10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.08060852

The Anxiety and Depression Association of America. (2020). Available at: https://adaa.org/resources-professionals/practice-guidelines-mdd#Contraindicated%20Treatment [Accessed 23 March 2021]

Zhang, X., Norton, J., Carriere, I., Ritchie, K., Chaudieu, I., & Ancelin, M. L. (2015). Risk factors for a late-onset generalized anxiety disorder: results from a 12-year prospective cohort (The ESPRIT study). Translational psychiatry5(3), e536-e536. https://doi.10.1038/tp.2015.31

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Short Answer Assessment Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example
Short Answer Assessment Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example 2

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