Write a discussion that includes;

1. All the different forms of sexual abuse and provide examples of each

2. Physical, behavioral,  and psychosocial indicators of possible childhood abuse

3. Physical indicators of actual or potential elder abuse and neglect

4. Deinstitutionalization

Reference: Fortinash, K. & Worret, H. P. (2012). Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing (5th ed.). Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. ISBN: 9780323075725


Forms of Sexual Abuse

Sexual abuse is a sexual act forced on an individual without consent, often perpetrated by taking advantage or using force. Different types of sexual abuse affect men and women. Rape is the most common form of sexual abuse perpetrated by sexual intercourse against a person’s will. While forced, Sodom results from oral or anal sex against a person’s will, and forcible object penetration forces penetration of a person’s anus or vagina without consent. Additionally, marital rape occurs between couples when sexual intercourse occurs without consent. Incest is sexual abuse between family members and may occur between stepbrothers and sisters. Unwanted or coerced sexual touching and sexual contact with minors, whether consented or not, are also classified as sexual abuse.(sexual abuse Discussion Essay-Example)

Subsequently, acquaintance rape occurs when a known or trusted individual forces another into sexual intercourse. Acquaintance rape may occur during a first date or partly perpetrated by a friend, co-worker, or family member. It may occur in relationships between friends, classmates, co-workers, teachers and students, doctors and patients, or coaches or athletes. Drug-facilitated rape occurs when someone uses drugs to lure and have sexual intercourse without consent. For instance, people may use alcohol to reduce the awareness of other persons and have sexual intercourse with them. Lastly, child abuse entails any sexual act with a minor by an adult through force, threatening, or tricking. Child sex abuse may involve exposing minors to pornography and exposing their bodies to forceful penetration.(sexual abuse Discussion Essay-Example)

Physical, Behavioral, and Psychosocial Indicators of Possible Childhood Abuse

Fortinash and Worret (2012) claim that common physical indicators of child abuse entail scald or burns with an identifiable shape, such as a cigarette, severe skull fractures indicating that the child may have rolled off a bed/chair, or bruises with recognizable shapes such as teeth marks or belt buckles. Additionally, sexually abused children may have UTIs, red, bruised, or swollen genitalia, vaginal or anal tears, and bruising. The child may also appear dirty, malnourished, and have skin rashes from poor hygiene. Behavioral indicators entail fear and anxiety with clinging to or rejecting adults’ attention. The child’s behavior may be outside the normal expected development stage and age. They may have unexplained behavior, such as refusing to eat or being aggressive with peers. Psychosocialogically, the child may portray anxiety, depression, aggression, or withdrawal.(sexual abuse Discussion Essay-Example)

Physical Indicators of Actual or Potential Elder Abuse and Neglect

Older persons encounter different forms of maltreatment from family members or caregivers as they depend on them for food, healthcare, and different activities of daily living. Potential physical indicators of elder abuse and neglect entail hidden or untreated injuries that may be incompatible with the explanations provided. The injuries may include burns, welts, bruises, puncture wounds, lacerations, or cuts. Burns may be cigarette burns, acid or caustic burns, scaldings, or wrist or ankle friction burns from being restrained by chains, ropes, or clothing. Subsequently, physical signs of neglect are the offensive smell of urine or feces, rashes, dirt, lice, sores, or torn and inadequate clothing. Malnourishment and dehydration that are not linked to specific illnesses also portray abuse.


Deinstitutionalization entails shifting support and care from long-stay psychiatry hospitals to less isolated community mental health services for patients with severe mental health disorders or developmental disabilities. The procedure reduces the population of patients in mental health institutions. It aims to reform mental healthcare by establishing special services to improve independence while reducing isolation behaviors that complicate the patients’ ability to adjust to life outside care (Fulone et al., 2021). The complex process improves, develops, and promotes access to alternative specialized community care for patients with physical and mental illnesses. As such, non-institutionalized community care enhances the quality of life for the patients and promotes citizenship and social inclusion. However, nations should establish the basic infrastructure required to replace hospitals for patients with mental illnesses with non-institutionalized community care to achieve improved outcomes.(sexual abuse Discussion Essay-Example)

sexual abuse Discussion Essay-Example


Fortinash, K. & Worret, H. P. (2012). Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing (5th ed.). Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. ISBN: 9780323075725

Fulone, I., Barreto, J. O. M., Barberato-Filho, S., Bergamaschi, C. D. C., Silva, M. T., & Lopes, L. C. (2021). Improving care for deinstitutionalized people with mental disorders: Experiences of the use of knowledge translation tools. Frontiers in Psychiatry12, 575108.

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