8-2 Final Project Milestone Six: Case Scenario 6-Psychological assessment Tools-Nursing Paper Examples

Daubert Standard

The Daubert standard requires psychological assessment tools to constitute known error rates and exhibit high reliability and validity based on the scientific method. In this case, the Spousal Assault Risk Assessment (SARA) tool used in the case study satisfies the Daubert standard since it constitutes a known error rate of between 0.77-0.87 with a predictive accuracy of between 0.70-0.76 based on a study by Graham et al. (2021) (Psychological assessment Tools-Nursing Paper Examples).

Psychological assessment Tools-Nursing Paper Examples
Psychological assessment Tools-Nursing Paper Examples

The study also indicates that SARA has moderate internal consistency, good concurrent validity, and significant positive correlations, making it a valid and reliable tool for assessing an individual’s risk of violence. Its use has also been peer-reviewed and acceptable among the scientific community (Graham et al., 2021). Additionally, the case study data collected through the SARA satisfies the scientific method since it constitutes Mr. X’s background, test prediction and performance, and result analysis for developing conclusions. Thus, SARA meets the Daubert standard, allowing forensic psychologists to present court evidence based on its assessment results (Psychological assessment Tools-Nursing Paper Examples).

Interview Information

The clinical interview information indicates that Mr. X’s cognitive functioning, affect, and mood were within normal limits, including no suicidal ideations. The scores on SARA scores (total raw score= 50, total factors present= 15) indicate that Mr. X has a high risk of violence. The patient was also remorseful of past criminal offenses and was not ready to re-offend. In this case, the patient’s risk of violence can be classified under the Alpha risk typologies since the patient is less likely to re-offend and could show commitment to counseling sessions and completion of mandatory services (Psychological assessment Tools-Nursing Paper Examples).

However, Mr. X could exhibit neglectful supervision under stress and an increased risk of developing severe psychopathic tendencies like Tragic Hero themes. The assessment aligns with Khalikaprasad’s (2020) argument for less re-offending behavior among criminals who are remorseful and ready to reform. Remorse indicates an individual’s recognition of mistakes and the desire to be accountable and reform (Psychological assessment Tools-Nursing Paper Examples). 

Collateral Information (Psychological assessment Tools-Nursing Paper Examples)

The collateral information indicates that Mr. X has an isolated history of family violence and has dealt with illicit substances to generate income. The information is aligned with Alpha risk typologies, indicating that Mr. X has an increased risk of re-offending due to the underlying psychological condition, mood disorder. Albalawi et al. (2019) observe that psychological problems like mood disorders increase the risk of illegal behaviors like substance use and violence (Psychological assessment Tools-Nursing Paper Examples).

Additionally, the individual has a higher risk of continuing with the sale of illicit substances due to lack of employment. This assessment aligns with the observations of Payne et al. (2020) that social skill difficulties, unemployment, and inadequate relationships contribute to recidivism among criminals. The re-offenders are compelled to engage in illegal activities to bridge the social and economic gaps in their lives (Psychological assessment Tools-Nursing Paper Examples).


Mr. X should be subjected to regular psychological assessments (annually) to ascertain their risk of violence, especially gun fitness evaluations. Regular psychological assessment can also help in the early detection and treatment of psychopathic patterns to reduce incidences of neglected supervision. For instance, Stohs et al. (2019) found in a study on alcohol and relapse prevention that regular follow-up on patients’ recovery process reduces the risk of recidivism. Besides, Mr. X should secure employment to reduce the risk of selling illicit substances to raise income.

The individuals’ risk of engaging in illegal activities increases when stressed, with unemployment being among life’s stressors (Payne et al., 2020). Also, Mr. X should be enrolled in family therapy to reduce the incidences of domestic violence. The treatment could help solve the family conflict and financial problems and develop strategies for mood management. It is also important to fully incorporate the views and perceptions of Mr. X regarding the treatment intervention and allow the patient to choose the intervention they are comfortable with. Upholding an individual’s autonomy in determining mental health intervention to implement increases the potential of complying with the intervention (Campbell et al., 2019) (Psychological assessment Tools-Nursing Paper Examples). 

Ethical Guidelines

The identified recommendations align with the American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines. For instance, conducting regular psychological assessments ensures beneficial patient outcomes since the follow-up will improve Mr. X’s coping with the mood disorder problem and enhance his peaceful relationship with his wife. It aligns with the principle of beneficence and underscores the moral obligation of doing good while focusing on the patient’s interests (Kung & Johansson, 2022) (Psychological assessment Tools-Nursing Paper Examples).

Additionally, allowing Mr. X to choose the treatment intervention aligns with the ethical principle of autonomy. Campbell et al. (2019) explain that autonomy obligates psychologists to provide clients with adequate information related to the treatment intervention to allow them to make independent and informed decisions that they can comfortably comply with (Psychological assessment Tools-Nursing Paper Examples).


Albalawi, O., Chowdhury, N. Z., Wand, H., Allnutt, S., Greenberg, D., Adily, A., … & Butler, T. (2019). Court diversion for those with psychosis and its impact on re-offending rates: results from a longitudinal data-linkage study. BJPsych Open5(1), e9. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2018.71

Campbell, R., Goodman-Williams, R., & Javorka, M. (2019). A trauma-informed approach to sexual violence research ethics and open science. Journal of interpersonal violence34(23-24), 4765–4793. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260519871530

Graham, L. M., Sahay, K. M., Rizo, C. F., Messing, J. T., & Macy, R. J. (2021). The validity and reliability of available intimate partner homicide and re-assault risk assessment tools: A systematic review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse22(1), 18-40.https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838018821952

Khalikaprasad, L. (2020). Remorse, Not Race: Essence of Parole Release? Journal of Race, Gender, and Ethnicity9(1), 11. https://digitalcommons.tourolaw.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1063&context=jrge

Kung, W. W., & Johansson, S. (2022). Ethical mental health practice in diverse cultures and races. Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work31(3-5), 248-262.https://doi.org/10.1080/15313204.2022.2070889

Payne, K. L., Maras, K., Russell, A. J., & Brosnan, M. J. (2020). Self-reported motivations for offending by autistic sexual offenders. Autism24(2), 307–320. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361319858860

Stohs, M. E., Schneekloth, T. D., Geske, J. R., Biernacka, J. M., & Karpyak, V. M. (2019). Alcohol craving predicts relapse after residential addiction treatment. Alcohol and Alcoholism54(2), 167-172. https://doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agy093

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