Parse’s Human Becoming Theory Case Study Assignment-Nursing Paper Examples

Parse’s Human Becoming Theory

Nurses’ primary role is to help patients and families through their illnesses and recovery journey. Nursing theories guide nursing practice and provide insights into how nurses should relate to patients. In addition, and their approach to ensure the utmost patient experience. Ideally, hospice nursing is an area demanding compassion and high-level interpersonal skills. Hospice nurses emphasize care, comfort, and quality of life as individuals approach the end of life (Parse’s Human Becoming Theory).

Parse's Human Becoming Theory
Parse’s Human Becoming Theory

From the case study provided, Ann is at a point where it is impossible to care for herself. Furthermore, the benevolent thing would be to ensure she is as comfortable as possible. The theory of human becoming is suitable in such situations as its main emphasis is the quality of life. In addition, the consideration of the wholeness of an individual, including their spirituality and perception of life and death (Parse’s Human Becoming Theory).

How the Nurse Should Actualize Parse \’s Theory of Human Becoming

The human becoming theory emphasizes the wholeness of an individual and the adoption of holistic care. More so, that integrates biological, psychological, sociological, cultural, and spiritual aspects. According to the theory, people cannot be separated from the environment and constantly interact with it (Mitchell, 2019). The nurse has to adopt the themes of meaning, rhythmicity, and transcendence to actualize the theory (Parse’s Human Becoming Theory).

The nurse has to be present, listen to Ann and Ben, invite or ask open-ended questions. Consequently, understand the patient’s and family’s perception of the situation. In addition, develop alternative meanings and paths for the patient and family. It is possible when the nurse begins by establishing a therapeutic and strong nurse-patient relationship. Moreover, which views the patient as a whole person living experiences via their environment rather than focusing on fixing illnesses.

With a solid nurse-patient relationship, the nurse can help the patient find personal meaning. More so, in this situation and visualize the reality per the patient’s experiences with the environment (Barros et al., 2017). In this case study, Ann has lived a long life as a woman, mother, and wife. Furthermore, the husband describes some of Ann’s experiences with her environment. Through these experiences, the hospice nurse can help the patient find personal meaning in life. Moreover, as a mother, wife, and other experiences she admires and appreciates (Parse’s Human Becoming Theory).

The nurse must help the patient and her husband to achieve rhythmicity or develop patterns relating to the universe or the environment. Rhythmicity refers to people co-creating with the environment in rhythmic patterns (Barros et al., 2017). In this case, it involves the nurse acknowledging the values and beliefs of Ann and Ben. For instance, the husband mentions that their daughter died giving birth (Parse’s Human Becoming Theory).

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Once, they saw two shooting starts and believed they represented their daughter and the baby. The husband believes in life after death, and Ann will join their daughter and grandchild. It implies that the family is spiritual and relates to the universe. Therefore, the nurse should respect these beliefs, guide the patient and the family through their spirituality. Consequently and complement Ben’s belief that the two shooting stars are their daughter and baby. Consequently, Ann will join them as the third shooting star. This way, Ben will feel that their beliefs and spirituality are respected and understood, fostering the care experience.

The end of life can be a lonely and frightening journey. The nurse must transcend with the patient or create an environment that allows transcendence, which is going beyond the limits an individual sets (Barros et al., 2017). The nurse should accompany the patient as she travels beyond the limits and be with her throughout the end-of-life journey (Parse’s Human Becoming Theory).

Specifically, the nurse should conduct spiritual care, which involves trust in the transcendent. The ultimate end should be the connection with reality and helping the patient and family, Ben, in this case, let go and accepts reality. The nurse should guide the process of reflecting and detaching to ensure a successful and comfortable transition from life (Parse’s Human Becoming Theory).

Characteristics, Strengths, and Weaknesses of Human Becoming Theory

Characteristics and Assumptions of Human Becoming Theory

The theory of Human becoming guides nurses to focus on the quality of life from each individual’s perspective. It combines biological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual attributes and perceives a person as a unitary actor in pervasive interaction with their environment. The theory is founded around the primary themes of meaning, rhythmicity, and transcendence (Barros et al., 2017) (Parse’s Human Becoming Theory).

The theory assumes that people coexist while co-creating rhythmic patterns with the universe; people are open, free choosing meaning in situations and are responsible for decisions made; a person is a unitary, persistently co-creating relational patterns; and people are transcending multidimensionally with the possible.

It describes a person as more than the sum of the parts and remain inseparable from the environment. Consequently, the theory perceives nursing as a human science and an art of caring. Moreover, that adopts an abstract body of knowledge to help individuals (Barros et al., 2017). It encourages nurses to form strong bonds and relationships with their patients because the focus is not on fixing problems but on quality of life (Parse’s Human Becoming Theory).

Strengths and Weaknesses of Human Becoming Theory

The theory of Human Becoming separates nursing from other fields, guiding care and valuable administration. Consequently, the theory adopts the humanistic and interactive approach that perceives people as humans before patients. The theory also encourages individuals to explore their views of their unique experiences. In addition, and it does not seek to fix problems but instead maintain the quality of life (Parse’s Human Becoming Theory).

However, the research linked to this theory is perceived as a closed circle, and the results are unquantifiable (Marginson, 2019). Comparing results to other research studies is challenging due to the lack of a control group or standardized questions. Furthermore, the Human Becoming theory does not adopt the nursing process. Consequently, and invalidates the idea that each individual participates in a unique lived experience. Moreover, the theory is inaccessible to new nurses and is challenging to apply in acute, emergent care (Parse’s Human Becoming Theory). 

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Challenges Existing for Healthcare Institutions to Switch to This Nursing Approach

Healthcare institutions face issues relating to the quality of care, compassion fatigue and patient satisfaction. In addition, and scope of nursing and identity (Oleribe et al., 2019). However, the Human Becoming Theory can be applied to address these challenges. Furthermore, the theory describes nursing as a human science and an art of caring. It emphasizes quality of life through proper, holistic, and interactive care (Parse’s Human Becoming Theory).

Moreover, it recommends nurses develop therapeutic relationships with their patients, which can aid in understanding patients better, including their needs, preferences, beliefs, and values, and integrating these into healthcare plans to ensure the utmost patient experience and positive patient outcomes. Additionally, therapeutic relationships have proven effective in addressing compassion fatigue, a barrier to quality of care and patient satisfaction and experience with care Parse’s (Human Becoming Theory).

How Parse \’S Understanding of Transcendence Might Guide the Nurse, As Ann \’S death Became a Reality to Ben

Parse’s theory describes transcendence as the human going beyond reality and the desired hopes and dreams via pushing and resisting to create alternatives to viewing reality. Per this theme, the human can create a path moving from the current moment to one that is not yet here. Furthermore, the person can overcome destitution, change views, and start a new life (Parse’s Human Becoming Theory).

The understanding of transcending can help the nurse aid Ben in detaching and separating from his past and starting a new life (Pentaris & Tripathi, 2022). The nurse will help Ben reflect on the life already lived and detach from it as Ann’s death becomes more of a reality. The nurse will be present and demonstrate compassion, give hope and affirmation to Ben of life as fruitful, and help him find meaning in existence without Ann (Parse’s Human Becoming Theory).

Alternative Nursing Theory and Plan of Care

Watson’s Theory of Transpersonal Care is also applicable to this case study. The theory focuses on how nurses express care to their clients, emphasizing humanistic nursing as they interact with scientific knowledge and nursing practice. Per the theory, nursing care is about health promotion, illness prevention, caring for the sick, and restoring health (Aghaei et al., 2020). In hospice care, only the role of caring for the sick applies and should be actualized through a holistic approach that takes spirituality into account. It persists that the human should be valued, respected, nurtured, understood, and cared for as a functional integrated self (Parse’s Human Becoming Theory).

A plan of care linked to this case study would focus on grieving and death anxiety as Ann takes her last breath. Ben might be experiencing death anxiety and grieving that can be related to the perceived death of Ann, evidenced by worrying about the impact of Ann’s death, powerlessness over the situation, and the fear of the process of dying. The desired outcome would be that Ben identifies and expresses feelings appropriately, continues with everyday living and plans for the future, verbalizes understanding of the dying process and associated feelings, and demonstrates personal empowerment in spiritual strengths to find purpose and meaning in life, loss, and grief.

The Human Becoming theory’s primary themes of meaning and transcending and the Transpersonal care theory’s assumption of nursing as a holistic approach that considers spirituality and spiritual practice would be the theoretical underpinning of this care plan. In this regard, the nurse would assess the patient’s view of life and death and monitor signs of hopelessness, expression of anger, guilt, despair, and intrapersonal conflict (Parse’s Human Becoming Theory).

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The nurse should also determine how Ben will understand and respond to death. Possible interventions include creating an open, nonjudgmental environment, encouraging Ben to verbalize thoughts and concerns like sadness and anger and acknowledge that these feelings are normal, and developing a trusting relationship with Ben to help him appropriately cope and continue with life (Parse’s Human Becoming Theory).


Nursing focuses on care for individuals, families, and communities to help attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and achieve a quality life. According to the Human Becoming theory, nursing is differentiated from other healthcare dimensions because the primary focus is quality of life rather than solving problems. Human becoming theory can be actualized by being present and compassionate, offering hope and affirmation, helping patients and families find meaning in life, and reflecting and transcending their experiences. The theory of Transpersonal Care can be an alternative to the Human Becoming theory and also adopts the holistic approach to care (Parse’s Human Becoming Theory).


Aghaei, M. H., Vanaki, Z., & Mohammadi, E. (2020). Watson’s human caring theory-based palliative care: a discussion paper. International Journal of Cancer Management13(6).

Barros, L. B. F., Silva, L. D. F. D., Guedes, M. V. C., & Pessoa, V. L. M. D. P. (2017). Clinical care of nursing reasoned in Parse: Contribution in the transcendence process of cardiac transplantation. Revista Gaucha De Enfermagem38.

Marginson, S. (2019). Limitations of human capital theory. Studies in Higher Education44(2), 287-301.

Mitchell, G. J. (2019). Chapter 24: Human Becoming.

Oleribe, O. O., Momoh, J., Uzochukwu, B. S., Mbofana, F., Adebiyi, A., Barbera, T., Williams, R., & Taylor-Robinson, S. D. (2019). Identifying Key Challenges Facing Healthcare Systems In Africa And Potential Solutions. International journal of general medicine12, 395–403.

Pentaris, P., & Tripathi, K. (2022). Palliative Professionals’ Views on the Importance of Religion, Belief, and Spiritual Identities toward the End of Life. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health19(10), 6031.

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