Write a discussion that includes;

1. Review table 13-2 and write a summary of all the neurotransmitters, type and their functions in schizophrenia

2. Write a discussion that summarizes all the phases of late-onset schizophrenia

3. Write a discussion that summarizes paranoid schizophrenia, disorganize schizophrenia, catatonic schizophrenia, undifferentiated schizophrenia, and residual schizophrenia

4. Write a discussion that summarizes schizoaffective disorder

5. Summarize the 3 stages of Alzheimer’s disease and give examples of the patient’s behavior in each stage

Reference: Fortinash, K. & Worret, H. P. (2012). Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing (5th ed.). Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. ISBN: 9780323075725

DISCUSSION WK 4-Sample Solution

Review Table 13-2 and write a summary of all the neurotransmitters, types, and functions in schizophrenia.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental condition that can endure long periods and is defined by a wide range of symptoms. The symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, abnormal speech or behavior, and cognitive impairments. Neurotransmitters are molecules that neurons use to communicate with one another and the tissues to which they attempt to gain access (Fortinash & Worret, 2012). Some of the neurotransmitters that are linked with schizophrenia include dopamine, Glutamate, and, Serotonin.(Neurotransmitters in schizophrenia Essay-Example)


Dopamine is produced in the substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental regions of the brain, and variations in dopamine levels have been associated with schizophrenia. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter connected to happiness, reward, and drive (Fortinash & Worret, 2012). According to the revised dopamine hypothesis, schizophrenia patients’ positive symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions, are generated by hyperactive dopamine transmission in the mesolimbic regions and hypoactive dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex.(Neurotransmitters in schizophrenia Essay-Example)


According to Fortinash and Worret (2012), Glutamate, the dominant excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, influences how we learn, remember, and recognize things. A connection has been made between the glutamate system and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Specifically, disruption to a particular glutamate receptor, such as the methyl-D-aspartate receptor, can result in adverse symptoms such as cognitive impairment.



The role of the serotonin neurotransmitter is to control an individual’s sleep, mood, and anxiety levels (Fortinash & Worret, 2012). Serotonin neurotransmitter has been implicated with schizophrenia in that when changes occur in serotonin signaling, specifically in the serotonin 2A receptors, it results in the development of schizophrenia-positive symptoms.(Neurotransmitters in schizophrenia Essay-Example)

Write a discussion that summarizes all the phases of late-onset schizophrenia.

Late-onset schizophrenia is characterized by the development of psychosis after age 45. The first stage is the prodromal phase, characterized by moderate symptoms of schizophrenia, such as social isolation, mild anxiety, and mild depression. However, it may take time, months, or even years, before the person experiences the onset of the illness (Fortinash & Worret, 2012). The second stage is the active phase, where the individual begins to experience psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations, disordered thinking, and behaviors. Also, patients in this phase are generally paced under medication and hospitalization. The last phase is the residual phase, where the symptoms present during the active phase of schizophrenia become severe (Fortinash & Worret, 2012). Patients typically gain a clearer understanding of what they did and how they thought during the various periods of the disease when the symptoms of the active phase begin to subside.

Write a discussion that summarizes paranoid schizophrenia, disorganized schizophrenia, catatonic schizophrenia, undifferentiated schizophrenia, and residual schizophrenia.

Paranoid schizophrenia is a subtype of schizophrenia characterized by extreme paranoia. The typical onset of paranoid schizophrenia symptoms is in the late teens. A person’s thoughts of mistrust toward other individuals and their actions define the behavior pattern known as paranoia. Moreover, the two symptoms of paranoia are delusions and hallucinations. Second, disorganized schizophrenia is characterized by disorganized thought, speech, and behavior. Individuals with disorganized schizophrenia have inappropriate emotional responses and trouble organizing their ideas and activities (Fortinash & Worret, 2012). As a result, they could struggle with daily tasks, including personal hygiene and self-care. Typically, the onset of symptoms of disorganized schizophrenia begins in late adolescence or early adulthood.(Neurotransmitters in schizophrenia Essay-Example)

Third, catatonic schizophrenia is characterized by motor abnormalities such as stupor, stiffness, and posturing (Fortinash & Worret, 2012). People with catatonic schizophrenia may also exhibit echolalia and echopraxia. This uncommon subtype manifests with an abrupt onset in late adolescence or early adulthood. Forth, undifferentiated schizophrenia is a subtype of schizophrenia diagnosed when an individual comes with symptoms that do not match any other subtypes of schizophrenia, such as delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking, and abnormal behaviors (Fortinash & Worret, 2012). Lastly, residual schizophrenia is a subtype of schizophrenia diagnosed when an individual has experienced at least one episode of schizophrenia but does not display any prominent symptoms (Fortinash & Worret, 2012). Individuals with residual schizophrenia may have some residual symptoms, such as social withdrawal or lack of motivation, but they are not experiencing active psychosis.

Write a discussion that summarizes schizoaffective disorder.

Schizoaffective disorder is characterized by schizophrenia and a mood disorder, such as depression or bipolar disorder (Fortinash & Worret, 2012). The condition is difficult to diagnose because of its wide range of associated symptoms, including hallucinations, delusions, deviant thinking, low motivation, depression, and manic episodes (Fortinash & Worret, 2012). In this case, a patient must have had psychosis and mood disorder symptoms over an extended period to be diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder. The most effective treatment for this disorder is frequently a combination of medication and psychotherapy.(Neurotransmitters in schizophrenia Essay-Example)

Summarize the three stages of Alzheimer’s disease and give examples of the patient’s behavior in each stage.

Alzheimer’s is a progressive neurological disorder primarily affecting older adults, which leads to cognitive decline and functional impairment. Alzheimer’s disease has three main stages, which are; the early stage, middle stage, and late stage.

Early stage

A person with Alzheimer’s may still be able to continue living independently during the disease’s early stage (Fortinash & Worret, 2012). Ideally, they can continue to work, drive, and participate in social activities. However, the person may have memory problems, such as forgetting commonplace words or where to find commonplace items.(Neurotransmitters in schizophrenia Essay-Example)

Middle stage

This stage can last longer and is usually characterized by the diagnosis of dementia symptoms (Fortinash & Worret, 2012). Patients in this stage have symptoms such as increased memory loss, such as forgetting the names of family members or everyday objects, confusion or disorientation, and changes in behavior, such as wandering, agitation, or aggression.

Late stage

In the late stage, the patients are more dependent on others as they cannot perform tasks independently (Fortinash & Worret, 2012). Symptoms associated with this stage include; severe memory loss, including forgetting one’s name and personal history; loss of physical abilities, such as the ability to walk, sit up, or swallow; and difficulty communicating, including a loss of language skills.(Neurotransmitters in schizophrenia Essay-Example)

Neurotransmitters in schizophrenia Essay-Example


Fortinash, K. & Worret, H. P. (2012). Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing (5th ed.). Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. ISBN: 9780323075725

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