Health Promotion in Minority Populations

Assessment Description

Select an ethnic minority group that is represented in the United States (American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American, Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander). Using health information available from Healthy People, the CDC, and other relevant government websites, analyze the health status for this group.

In a paper of 1,000-1,250 words, compare and contrast the health status of your selected minority group to the national average. Include the following:

  1. Describe the ethnic minority group selected. Describe the current health status of this group. How do race and ethnicity influence health for this group?
  2. What are the health disparities that exist for this group? What are the nutritional challenges for this group?
  3. Discuss the barriers to health for this group resulting from culture, socioeconomics, education, and sociopolitical factors.
  4. What health promotion activities are often practiced by this group?
  5. Describe at least one approach using the three levels of health promotion prevention (primary, secondary, and tertiary) that is likely to be the most effective in a care plan given the unique needs of the minority group you have selected. Provide an explanation of why it might be the most effective choice.
  6. What cultural beliefs or practices must be considered when creating a care plan? What cultural theory or model would be best to support culturally competent health promotion for this population? Why?

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Health Promotion in Minority Populations-Sample Solution

Health Promotion in Minority Populations- Black Americans

Health promotion refers to the procedures established to enhance an individual’s control and improvement of their health. It leverages environmental, social, and biological factors to design effective mechanisms for preventing diseases and improving the population’s health (Palmer et al., 2021). In this case, the US government should implement culturally competent health promotion strategies to help address health inequalities and improve the population’s overall health. This paper will explore the health status of Black Americans, health disparities, and nutritional challenges affecting the population, including the barriers to healthcare for the group. It will further examine the health promotion activities in the population and health awareness as a practical approach to care plans for Black Americans. The last part will explore the cultural considerations necessary to create a population care plan.(Health Promotion in Black-Americans Essay-Example)

Background of the Population

Black Americans constitute 14.2% (46.9 million) of the American population, with only 12% lacking health insurance coverage as of 2019 (Finegold, 2022). Most Black Americans reside in Texasand their death rate has significantly declined over the past years. However, they are at higher risk of developing chronic health conditions like diabetes (60%) and heart disease (20%) than white or Hispanic populations (Cyrus et al., 2020). Notably, Cyrus et al. (2020) explain that race and ethnicity have contributed to the health challenges among Black Americans. These communities are marginalized in improving social determinants of health since most of them reside in industrial areas with poor distribution of healthcare resources.(Health Promotion in Black-Americans Essay-Example)

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Health Disparities and Nutritional Challenges

The number of uninsured Black Americans under 65 years has decreased significantly from 20% in 2011 to 12% in 2019 since the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which is still higher than the 9% among Whites (Finegold, 2022). Their life expectancy is 3.6 years less than white Americans, with heart disease and cancer being the leading causes of death as of 2020 (Finegold, 2022). Ellis et al. (2020) explain that the Black American population is greatly affected by mental problems like anxiety and depression due to high unemployment rates and poor living conditions. Consequently, Black Americans also experience nutritional challenges, such as the inability to choose a balanced diet (Dubowitz et al., 2021). They also experience challenges with limited dietary choices due to higher unemployment rates, forcing them to consume any available food type available without considering its nutritional benefits (Dubowitz et al., 2021). Additionally, most Black Americans offer essential services and work in industries, providing them with inadequate time to schedule or prepare balanced meals. As a result, most meals do not meet crucial vitamins and mineral requirements, such as Vitamin E, Vitamin B-6, calcium, and zinc.(Health Promotion in Black-Americans Essay-Example)

Barriers to Health

Black Americans experience various barriers to health, such as cultural factors, whereby some individuals prefer traditional medications over hospitals, making it challenging to seek preventive or adequate medical care from hospitals. Additionally, Connell et al. (2019) observe that socioeconomic factors affect access to improved healthcare since most of the population is unemployed and cannot afford the high healthcare costs. 19.5% of Black Americans live below the poverty level compared to only 8.2% of Whites in 2021 (Statista Research Department, 2021). Their poor social status also makes it challenging to access a balanced diet, leading to low immunity and poor health conditions (Connell et al., 2019).

Moreover, sociopolitical factors like the development of health policies and distribution of health resources are unfavorable to the Black community. Healthcare resources are poorly developed and distributed in areas with primarily Black populations, attributed to limited development activities in those areas, which leads to poor provision of care (Dickman et al., 2022). Lastly, Whiting and Bartle-Haring (2022) observe that most of the population is uneducated and cannot understand their rights on healthcare provision or the need to seek health insurance coverage, with only 30.8% attaining college degrees compared to 47.1% of Whites. Lack of adequate education also makes it challenging for the majority of the population to make informed decisions related to healthcare, such as appropriate dietary choices, increasing the risk of consuming large amounts of fatty food, which contribute to heart problems (Whiting & Bartle-Haring, 2022).

Health Promotion Activities

Black Americans rely on community leaders and institutions to disseminate information and response strategies for healthcare programs. Community leaders like church elders are responsible for psychological support and guidance on measures to achieve healthy living (Palmer et al., 2021). For example, they can advise against using illicit substances like cocaine and alcohol due to their deteriorating impact on emotional health. Additionally, they rely on community healers to treat and manage health conditions, including measures to take in case of a disease outbreak (Palmer et al., 2021). For example, they can give directives for quarantine in case of an outbreak of diseases spread through contact like Covid-19.(Health Promotion in Black-Americans Essay-Example)

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Levels of Health Promotion

A healthcare plan for Black Americans should involve raising awareness about the importance and ways of achieving good health. The strategy encompasses the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of health promotion. For instance, at the primary level, raising awareness through community education about the context of good health and measures to take to achieve good health could help prevent diseases. A balanced diet and regular exercise can help improve the body’s immunity and prevent the onset of chronic diseases like heart problems (Cena & Calder, 2020). Consequently, on the secondary level, awareness about health can influence the community to seek regular screening for diseases like diabetes and cancer to identify early symptoms and implement preventive measures (Hall et al., 2021). Finally, on the tertiary level, health awareness programs can help inform the need to seek continued medical care for chronic conditions like depression and stroke rehabilitation. It can also encourage the Black community to join support groups to help cope with depression and outcomes of other illnesses.(Health Promotion in Black-Americans Essay-Example)

Cultural Practices

African Americans have a history of distrusting artificial medicine and healthcare research, believing that it is a weapon formed by the Whites to destroy them (Powell et al., 2019). They prefer traditional medicine, healers and are primarily religious, with churches as a source of refuge. Besides, they also believe that their health depends on destiny, such that their health trajectory can only take an already predefined path. In this case, Palmer et al. (2021) illustrate that health promotion activities should utilize trusted community-based institutions like churches for healthcare promotion and education. Notably, egalitarian cultural theory can support a culturally competent healthcare promotion for Black Americans. According to Steckermeier and Delhey (2019), the theory assumes that all human beings are equal irrespective of their race, culture, religion, or age, hence should be accorded equal rights. In this case, the theory will require health promotion strategies to consider the cultural beliefs of Black Americans and poor socioeconomic status. For example, the health promotion activities should include translators and community members conversant with the cultural perspective of Black Americans.(Health Promotion in Black-Americans Essay-Example)

Health Promotion in Black-Americans Essay-Example

Conclusion

Culturally competent care is crucial in reducing health disparities and improving health provision in the USA. Many Black Americans are affected by marginalization leading to unequal distribution of health resources. They have a 3.6-year lower life expectancy than Whites and experience nutritional challenges like poor dietary choices. The health disparities are attributed to high unemployment rates, inadequate education, and low representation in sociopolitical aspects. Besides, Black Americans rely on traditional healers, church, and community leaders for information about health promotion activities. As a result, health awareness programs offer a suitable care plan that incorporates the unique needs of this population. In this case, an egalitarian theory can effectively facilitate equal healthcare provision among the population. Thus, the US government should establish strategies to incorporate the unique healthcare needs of ethnic minorities for improved healthcare provision.(Health Promotion in Black-Americans Essay-Example)

References

Cena, H., & Calder, P. C. (2020). Defining a healthy diet: evidence for the role of contemporary dietary patterns in health and disease. Nutrients12(2), 334. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020334

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Connell, C. L., Wang, S. C., Crook, L., & Yadrick, K. (2019). Barriers to healthcare seeking and provision among African American adults in the rural Mississippi Delta region: community and provider perspectives. Journal of community health44, 636–645https://doi.org/10.1007%2Fs10900-019-00620-1

Cyrus, E., Clarke, R., Hadley, D., Bursac, Z., Trepka, M. J., Dévieux, J. G., … & Wagner, E. F. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on African American communities in the United StatesHealth Equity4(1), 476-483https://doi.org/10.1089/heq.2020.0030

Dickman, S. L., Gaffney, A., McGregor, A., Himmelstein, D. U., McCormick, D., Bor, D. H., & Woolhandler, S. (2022). Trends in health care use among Black and white persons in the US, 1963-2019. JAMA network open5(6), e2217383-e2217383.doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.17383

Dubowitz, T., Dastidar, M. G., Troxel, W. M., Beckman, R., Nugroho, A., Siddiqi, S., … & Collins, R. L. (2021). Food insecurity in a low-income, predominantly African American cohort following the COVID-19 pandemic. American Journal of Public Health111(3), 494–497https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2020.306041

Ellis, K. R., Hecht, H. K., Young, T. L., Oh, S., Thomas, S., Hoggard, L. S., … & Eng, E. (2020). Peer reviewed: Chronic disease among African American families: A systematic scoping review. Preventing chronic disease17.http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd17.190431

Finegold, K. (2022). Health Insurance Coverage and Access to Care Among Black Americans: Recent Trends and Key Challenges. Office of Health Policy. https://aspe.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/08307d793263d5069fdd6504385e22f8/Black-americans-coverages-access-ib.pdf

Hall, A., Stockert, P. A., Potter, P. A., Perry, A. G. (2021). Fundamentals of Nursing – E-Book. United States: Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN: 9780323812153

Palmer, K. N., Rivers, P. S., Melton, F. L., McClelland, D. J., Hatcher, J., Marrero, D. G., … & Garcia, D. O. (2021). Health promotion interventions for African Americans delivered in US barbershops and hair salons-a systematic review. BMC Public Health21, 1-21.https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11584-0

Powell, W., Richmond, J., Mohottige, D., Yen, I., Joslyn, A., & Corbie-Smith, G. (2019). Medical mistrust, racism, and delays in preventive health screening among African-American men. Behavioral Medicine45(2), 102–117. https://doi.org/10.1080/08964289.2019.1585327

Statista Research Department (2021). The poverty rate in the United States in 2021 by ethnic group. Statista. https://www.statista.com/statistics/200476/us-poverty-rate-by-ethnic-group/#:~:text=In%202021%2C%2019.5%20percent%20of,8.1%20percent%20of%20Asian%20people.

Steckermeier, L. C., & Delhey, J. (2019). Better for everyone? Egalitarian culture and social well-being in Europe. Social Indicators Research143(3), 1075-1108. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-018-2007-z

Whiting, R., & Bartle-Haring, S. (2022). Variations in the association between education and self-reported health by race/ethnicity and structural racism. SSM-Population Health19, 101136.https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.ssmph.2022.101136

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