Globalization And Fragmentation
Globalization and fragmentation are sociologically and politically related concepts and contradictory in nature. Consequently, appear to hold various meanings and descriptions in different contexts and for different purposes. They are both subject to idealization and disputing. After the Cold War, globalization was a buzzword as a phenomenon that takes care of global progress and civilization (Globalization And Fragmentation).
Globalization is perceived as a substitute for imperialism that emphasizes transnational corporations (Milašinović & Bajagić, 2005). The term frequently refers to the process of creating an economic and political state that connects and unites contemporary societies into a global society. Globalization has been developing over centuries but gained considerable motion at the end of the Cold War. Universalization, homogenization, and unification concepts characterized the process.
It involves developing mutual connection and conditional equality between societies in different countries (Lundestad, 2004). Since the Cold War, countries have strengthened interrelations and interdependence, causing a significant transformation in politics, economies, and culture. However, globalization and fragmentation occur in parallel. As many countries push for interrelations and interdependence, there is an increasing need for maintaining independence and sovereignty(Globalization And Fragmentation).
The world is in an era of techno-capitalism characterized by the world economy, politics, and culture restructuring and reorganization. Many countries are intensifying and strengthening economic, social, cultural, political, and technological interdependence. New information technologies and communication accelerate globalization, and the world appears to be a society (Milašinović & Bajagić, 2005).
Currently, participants and events from various parts of the world influence each other. It is an unwritten rule among actors to depend on each other through scientific acceleration and technological development. Furthermore, through information systems, telecommunication development, and liberalizing the world market. Uniting humankind and the creation of a world society is inevitable(Globalization And Fragmentation).
After the Cold War ended in 1991, globalization sparked objective changes such as increased goods and services, capital, and labor mobility. Hence, intensifying ecological problems across national boundaries, and tremendous growth of the world communication aspects. Expansion of information technologies such as telephony, satellites, and the internet bridge spatial boundaries among countries. Therefore, making the world a global village.
Since 1991, there has been a revolution in military power, information gathering and development primacy. Consequently, in infrastructural development, commercial capability, and intelligent activities. Globalization has also led to ranking world economies by the production quality, marketing power, and small and new virtual communities’ appearance. in addition, expansion of non-government organizations, affordable mutual communication, and slight poverty(Globalization And Fragmentation).
Globalization has many contradictions, and some people refer to it as a plaque. It is considerably unbalanced, and to some extent, it increases inequalities favoring specific regions and social groups across the planet (Milašinović & Bajagić, 2005). Globalization cannot be measured only based on positive economic, cultural, information, and technological revolutions. In some areas, globalization led to intensifying conflicts and rivalry among states and societies.
There are negative consequences on the economy and politics evident since 1991, like the fall of the former USSR. Globalization has integrated and unified people, but it has also led to increased fragmentation and marginalization, breeding pressures, and tensions among states. Globalization is praised for promoting democracy and also criticized for condensing it(Globalization And Fragmentation).
Many people and nations became optimistic about a brighter future at the end of the Cold War, and these sentiments began in 1989. Globalization is marked as an endpoint of humankind’s political and social evolution leading to the creation of democracies, liberalization, and capitalistic systems, especially among Western European powers (Milašinović & Bajagić, 2005). Monarchism, fascism, and communism began to fail due to worldwide economic liberalization.
Globalization occurred together with fragmentation at the end of the Cold War. Nations entered into a race for arms production, natural resource exploitation, and control that led to conflicts, degradation, and a decrease in the quantity of resources. In the late 20th century, economic enthusiasm threatened the destruction of primary resources due to over-exploitation(Globalization And Fragmentation).
Countries have been competing for military, technological, and economic dominance (Milašinović & Bajagić, 2005). Nationalists and fundamentalist movements flourished due to political, economic, and cultural globalization, leading to the destabilization of some countries, especially in East and South-East Europe and East Asia, including Yugoslavia, the former USSR, Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan.
These countries experienced traumatic ethnic and religious conflicts (Cerny & Prichard, 2017). Globalization has threatened individual identities by increasing the rate by which local values, practices, and standards flow to other parts of the world. It has created instability and even chaos in the current world order. Many nations view globalization as an attack on territorial sovereignty that was a characteristic of the world order during the Cold War(Globalization And Fragmentation).
Globalization influenced the appearance of fragmentation that appears to occur inside nation-states. Globalization and political fragmentation are a danger to state sovereignty. Fragmentation is considered to oppose the pressures of globalization in an effort by nations to maintain their traditional independence (Milašinović & Bajagić, 2005). It leads to the disintegration of the global international system to create and maintain individual identities inside nation-states.
Globalization comes at the cost of political identities, cultural heritage, and states’ capacity to maintain their traditionally understood legitimacy. The loss of identity in some nations intensified ethnic and religious intolerance, leading to armed conflicts. Fragmentation along ethnic lines destroyed states and increased armed conflicts in countries like the former USSR, China, India, Chechnya, and Cashmere (Cerny & Prichard, 2017)(Globalization And Fragmentation).
Fragmentation also created possibilities for internationalized organized crime and terrorism development and expansion. Primary sources of fragmentation include some characteristics of globalization such as the knowledge and skills revolution, microelectronic technologies, branching of global structures, increased mobility, organizational explosion, and national economies globalization.
Globalization and fragmentation in the new world order come with the clash of civilizations because people still hold opposing worldviews, ethical beliefs, and behavioral codes. There is a war of the West versus the rest of the world, especially a cultural divide between Western European countries American cultures, and the Islamic civilizations (Milašinović & Bajagić, 2005).
Globalization fragmentation and conflict, and cooperation have remained dominant in the new world order. President George Bush envisioned the new world order in 1991 where states would unite against a common threat. Many people were optimistic that the world would be less confrontational after the end of the Cold War. The US became the world’s superpower with an unchallenged military(Globalization And Fragmentation).
However, other nations like India, China, and Russia never welcomed this idea. Many states like Iran and Iraq in the Gulf sought dominance and invaded other nations. Iraq captured Kuwait, an aggression that invited collaborative efforts of the US and other nations supported by the UN Security to expel Iraqi forces from Kuwait (Qamar & Kumaraswamy, 2019).
Globalization and fragmentation in the post-Cold War also saw the European Union (EU) formation to control a common market for services, goods, labor, and capital and pass legislation binding to all members (Rosnerova & Hraskova, 2020). The EU is a form of enhanced interrelations and interdependence, but some countries are delayed to join complaining of neglect of concerns of individual states and social groups.
The EU is an instance of globalization that led to sustainable peace and prosperity among member states. However, globalization and fragmentation affected many countries like Germany, Japan, China, and Russia which experienced social, economic, and political setbacks and structural weakness (Cerny & Prichard, 2017). These countries’ misfortunes allowed the US to dominate the world militarily and economically.
The US has been a steward in creating a more integrated economic system. Therefore, post-Cold War globalization has not left a trail of positive effects only, but it has also created and increased economic problems, and regional and internal conflicts in various countries by encouraging fragmentation.
Cerny, P. G., & Prichard, A. (2017). The new anarchy: Globalisation and fragmentation in world politics. Journal of International Political Theory, 13(3), 378-394.
Lundestad, G. (2004). Why does globalization encourage fragmentation?. International politics, 41(2), 265-276.
Milašinović, S., & Bajagić, M. (2005). Globalization & Fragmentation–Ruling Dynamics of Global Society. Megatrend Review, 2(2), 23-47.
Rosnerova, Z., & Hraskova, D. (2020). The impact of globalization on the business position of the European Union. In SHS Web of Conferences (Vol. 74, p. 05022). EDP Sciences.
Quamar, M. M., & Kumaraswamy, P. R. (2019). The Kuwait Crisis of 1990–1991: The Turning Point in India’s Middle East Policy. Contemporary Review of the Middle East, 6(1), 75-87.