Foundational Theories of Human Development comprehensive nursing paper example

Foundational Theories of Human Development comprehensive nursing paper example

Human development theories are employed in psychology to provide a basis for comprehending human behavior and personality. These theories also serve as the foundation for further research on human growth and behavior. This paper examines elements of the human development concepts of Freud, Erikson, Adler, and Mahler. (Foundational Theories of Human Development comprehensive nursing paper example)

Foundational Theories of Human Development comprehensive nursing paper example
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Compare and Contrast Freud & Erikson

Feud proposed the psychosexual theory. Feud posited that childhood experiences shape adulthood personalities and behavior (Lantz & Ray, 2020). He emphasized the different expressions of sexual energy in body parts. Erikson built on Feud’s ideas, introducing the psychosocial theory of development, which stressed the role of culture in parental behaviors and motivations and incorporating three phases of adult development (Syed & McLean, 2017).(Foundational Theories of Human Development comprehensive nursing paper example)

In some ways, Freud and Erikson’s ideas are identical. Both theories acknowledged the importance of childhood experiences in development. Furthermore, the theories acknowledged the significance of unconsciousness in development. Both ideas are also concerned with how children gain a sense of individuality and mastery. For example, in Freud’s second stage – the anal stage, children develop a sense of superiority and maturity by regulating their bowel movements (Lantz & Ray, 2020). Similarly, in Erikson’s second stage of growth – Autonomy versus shame and doubt – children become more active, gaining self-sufficiency by managing tasks like sleeping, toilet training, and communicating (Syed & McLean, 2017). Finally, both theories emphasized personality formation in a sequence of predetermined stages.(Foundational Theories of Human Development comprehensive nursing paper example)

On the contrary, Freud’s philosophies varied in several ways from Erikson’s philosophy. While Freud’s theory focused on psychosexual stages (Lantz & Ray, 2020), Erikson’s theory hypothesized social experience’s impact across an individual’s lifetime. Moreover, Freud focused on nutrition, while Erikson focused on an attentive caregiver’s response to an infant’s needs (Syed & McLean, 2017). Lastly, Freud’s theory focused on the role of libido on an individual during formative years (Armagan et al., 2014), while Erikson’s theory concentrated on children’s communication with peers and their parents.(Foundational Theories of Human Development comprehensive nursing paper example)

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Compare and Contrast Adler & Mahler

According to Adlerian theory, people are born uniquely and hence the need to be emotionally validated to enhance interpersonal connection and sense of significance (Winograd, 2016). Because of this uniqueness, individuals often strive to transcend feelings of inadequacy and act in ways that are of societal interests. Feelings of inferiority, according to Adler, have a significant impact on personality (Guido et al., 2018). Adler puts a strong emphasis on recognizing people in their social background, taking into account things like parenting, birth order, and lifestyle (Winograd, 2016). In this essence, a disturbance of a single body part affects the entire person(Foundational Theories of Human Development comprehensive nursing paper example)

On the other hand, Mahler’s theory centered on childhood development, especially the mother-infant bond, and its influences on the infant’s development of self-sufficiency and self-awareness (Mahler et al., 2019). Mahler identifies three stages of child development: (1) normal autistic, (2) normal symbiotic, and (3) separation-individuation phases. The first phase refers to when an infant is aloof and self-absorbed. The second phase refers to when the child develops awareness of his or her maternal parent without individuality. In the last phase, the child develops limits, ego, identity, and cognition.(Foundational Theories of Human Development comprehensive nursing paper example)

What are some ways the Adlerian approach can be applied to group counseling? What are some advantages of using a group format with this approach?

In-group counseling, the Adlerian approach can be used. This is because the philosophy emphasizes the growth of an individual’s identity while acknowledging and recognizing humanity’s interconnectivity. Adler argues that everyone is born into a community, from which they form connections at a young age, aiding the development of feelings of dominance or subordination in the infant (Winograd, 2016). The participants’ conduct is interpreted in Adlerian group counseling from the perspective of an individual’s life goals and a glimpse of their universal perception. Moreover, Adler emphasizes that a person can be understood within a familiar social environment.(Foundational Theories of Human Development comprehensive nursing paper example)

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Group therapy is crucial because it allows psychotherapists to facilitate and culture new behaviors in environments that evaluate behavioral instability.  Since group therapy uses a social framework, clients can acquire a sense of belonging, allowing them to identify negative factors arising from emotional and social concerns. Lastly, Adler’s theory allows nurse psychotherapists to establish a personalized and collaborative learning environment depending on a client’s socioemotional needs and sense of inferiority.(Foundational Theories of Human Development comprehensive nursing paper example)

What concepts from these psychoanalytic approaches do you see as being potentially valuable for your work as a nurse psychotherapist? Describe why.

Mahler’s theory is crucial as it emphasizes the development of the relationship between a mother and a baby and the consequential effect on the baby’s future development (Mahler et al., 2019). Equally, I find Adler’s theory potentially useful. Adler’s theory provides and holistic view crucial to developing an individualized therapeutic session (Winograd, 2016). I also find Freud’s theory crucial in interpersonal aspects such as ID, ego, and superego that determine a person’s personality and consequent behavior (Zare & Kouthari, 2018).(Foundational Theories of Human Development comprehensive nursing paper example)

Why should the nurse psychotherapist understand developmental theories for application in clinical practice?

Human development theories are employed in psychology to establish a basis for comprehending human behavior, feelings, emotions, learning, growth, and development (Pehlivan et al., 2016). As a result, psychotherapists must consider these theories to interpret and model various aspects of human behavior. Therefore, understanding these theories enables nurse psychotherapists to effectively assist patients in achieving appropriate behavior and mental health status.(Foundational Theories of Human Development comprehensive nursing paper example)

Foundational Theories of Human Development comprehensive nursing paper example
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Conclusion

In conclusion, Freud, Erikson, Adler, and Mahler’s theories are crucial developmental concepts for understanding human psychology. Each of the theories’ unique positions provides a crucial basis for interpreting human behavior, personality, and other significant psychological responses. Therefore, practitioners should identify with and understand these theories to aid their roles in helping a client achieve appropriate behaviors and mental health status.(Foundational Theories of Human Development comprehensive nursing paper example)

References

Armagan, A., Silay, M. S., Karatag, T., Akman, T., Tepeler, A., Ersoz, C. E. V. P. E. R., & Akcay, M. U. Z. A. F. F. E. R. (2014). Circumcision during the phallic period: does it affect the psychosexual functions in adulthood?. Andrologia, 46(3), 254-257(Foundational Theories of Human Development comprehensive nursing paper example). https://doi.10.1111/and.12071   

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Kar, S. K., Choudhury, A., & Singh, A. P. (2015). Understanding normal development of adolescent sexuality: A bumpy ride. Journal of human reproductive sciences, 8(2), 70.(Foundational Theories of Human Development comprehensive nursing paper example) https://doi.10.4103/0974-1208.158594  

Lantz, S. E., & Ray, S. (2020). Freud Developmental Theory. StatPearls [Internet]. (Foundational Theories of Human Development comprehensive nursing paper example)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557526/

Mahler, E. A., Johannsen, J., Tsiakas, K., Kloth, K., Lüttgen, S., Mühlhausen, C., … & Hempel, M. (2019). Exome Sequencing in Children: Undiagnosed Developmental Delay and Neurological Illness. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International116(12), 197.(Foundational Theories of Human Development comprehensive nursing paper example) 10.3238/arztebl.2019.0197

Syed, M., & McLean, K. C. (2017). Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development. 10.31234/osf.io/zf35d

Winograd, W. (2016). Demeter’s compromise: separation, loss, and reconnection in mothers with daughters entering adulthood. Psychoanalytic Social Work, 23(1), 23–41

Zare, A., & Kouthari, F. (2018). Psychological criticism of Antara’s personality throughout his poems is based on Freud and Adler’s theories. Journal of Babylon Center for Humanities Studies8(4).  https://www.iasj.net/iasj/article/149635

Guido, G., Belk, R. W., Rizzo, C., & Pino, G. (2018). Consumer behavior and the toilet: Research on expulsive and retentive personalities. Journal of Consumer Behaviour17(3), 280-289.  (Foundational Theories of Human Development comprehensive nursing paper example)https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.1709

Pehlivan, T., & Güner, P. (2016). The Use of Theories in Psychiatric Nursing-II. Journal of Psychiatric Nursing/Psikiyatri Hemsireleri Dernegi7(2). 10.5505/Ph.D.2016.46036

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