Part 3: Nursing Leadership – Childbearing after menopause – Assignment Solution

Part 3: Nursing Leadership – Childbearing after menopause

Part 1: Nursing Leadership

Topic/Issue:   In vitro fertilization

Purpose: Address an ethical issue associated with the practice of nursing

1. Introduction

2. Describe the topic (One paragraph)

3. Define the scope of the ethical issue (One paragraph)

4. Describe the scope/impact of the issue on nursing (One paragraph)

5. How the issue relates to and principles identified in nursing codes of ethics.(One paragraph)

6. According to two different experts, explain two pros arguments based on principles from identified codes (Two paragraphs)

7. According to two different experts, explain two cons arguments based on principles from identified codes (Two paragraphs)

8. Describe the issue’s future as it relates to the nursing profession (One paragraph)

9. Describe the issue’s future as it relates to  clinical practice (Paragraph)

10. Conclusion

  1. Please describe each reproductive technologies: donor insemination, in vitro fertilization, and surrogate motherhood and discuss one ethical implication of each procedure?

Donor insemination refers to a fertility approach that involves thawing and inserting a frozen donor sperm into an individual’s uterus during ovulation to get them pregnant. Sperm donors can be known individuals or clinic-recruited one. Ethical issues associated with donor insemination include minimizing infection and genetic risks from the sperm donor. Vitro fertilization refers to a complex series of procedures to aid fertility or prevent genetic issues during child conception. The experts collect mature eggs from the ovaries, fertilize those using sperms in a laboratory, and then transfer the embryo (s) to the uterus. Several ethical issues are associated with Vitro fertilization, including obtaining consent from both parties and conducting pre-implantation genetic diagnosis to identify any genetic problems. Surrogate motherhood is an event that entails obtaining the sperm of a father and an oocyte of the mother implanted into a woman (gestational surrogate) who would carry the pregnancy to full term. Surrogate mothers offer the womb and genetic materials in which the embryo will grow. Traditional surrogate motherhood involved artificially inseminating a surrogate mother with the father’s sperm. Surrogate motherhood has several ethical issues, especially child separation from the mother based on a contract, leading to significant health and psychological risks. The process can also exploit vulnerable women.(Childbearing after menopause)

  • Discuss some ethical concerns surrounding adoption?

Every adopted child and the adopting family have the right to ethical adoption practices that focus on the child’s best interests. Both parties should be honest and offer accurate and complete information concerning the adoption. Nonidentifying and identifying information should be availed to the adoptive parents and adult adoptees. However, the person whose information is being disclosed should give consent using the available methods of providing consent. The adopting adults should access the original birth certificate. The adopting adults should also access information about any worrying or known biological or genetic influences. Most adopting families are lied about the child and the biological parents, especially in international adoption. Most children in foster adoption come from orphanage care primarily due to biological families’ poverty, disease, stigma, or inability to care for the child. Corruption and fraud are common in the adoption process, and there are concerns over child selling and trafficking to orphanage care. For a child to be considered for adoption, they should be found clear or free of any abduction, sale, or trafficking by both the parent and the adopting countries. No party should be pressured to move forward with the adoption until they are ready, and all parties should focus on protecting the child’s rights and interests.(Childbearing after menopause)  

  • What are some common symptoms of menopause? Why is hormone replacement therapy controversial and often not recommended for a post-menopausal woman? Discuss at least two reasons.

The initial menopause sign involves changes to the periods to unusually light or heavy periods, either every two to three weeks or for months at a time before they eventually stop. Common menopause symptoms include hot flushes characterized by short, sudden feelings of heat in the face, neck, and chest, making the skin red and sweaty. The women also experience night sweats, difficulty sleeping that increases fatigue and irritation during the day, reduced sex drive, and problems with memory and concentration. Virginal dryness and pain, itching, and discomfort during sex are also common menopause symptoms. Women during menopause experience mood changes that include low mood and anxiety, palpitations characterized by more noticeable heartbeats, joint stiffness, aches, and pains, muscle mass reduction, and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). There are several controversies related to hormone replacement therapy (HRT), including the long-term use of combined estrogen and progestin HRT associated with elevated risks of breast and ovarian cancer. HRT also increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. There are known risks of having blood clots like deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Liver disease and virginal bleeding are also common with HRT.  (Childbearing after menopause)

  • List and describe at least three common environmental factors associated with adult obesity. Please discuss at least three ways that we can best combat adult obesity.

The scientific community provides that environmental factors are the primary driver of the current obesity epidemic. Particular neighborhood environmental factors and urban design are associated with obesity among adults. They include inadequate pedestrian amenities, poorly connected street patterns, difficult-to-access destinations, and neighborhood safety perception that contributes to lack of physical activity, increasing the risk of adult obesity. The lack of physical activity also stems from the increased use of automobiles even to short-distanced destinations. Most street designs have less room for cycling, which is a recommended physical activity; hence the bus and personal cars remain the primary modes of transport. Healthy food availability and convenience are also environmental factors that discourage most adults from eating healthy diets. Health considerations should be integrated during neighborhood designs to encourage people to practice healthy behaviors and prevent or address obesity. All streets should accommodate cyclists’ lanes to encourage physical activities using bicycles over short distances. More recreational facilities, gyms, and sports arenas should be in the neighborhoods to increase physical activities. Increasing the availability and convenience of healthy foods in the neighborhood can also help prevent obesity through healthy eating habits.  (Childbearing after menopause)

  • What are Gardner’s 8 types of intelligence? Where do your strengths lie, according to his typology?
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Gardener’s eight types of intelligence include linguistic, logical/mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist. Linguistic intelligence deals with sensitivity to spoken and written language, language learning ability, language use capacity to accomplish particular goals. Logical intelligence refers to the capacity to assess problems logically through mathematical operations and scientific investigation. Spatial intelligence is the ability to recognize and manipulate broad space patterns and confined areas, including surgeons, sculptors, art. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence refers to the ability to use one’s body or body parts to address issues, create products, or perform. Musical intelligence describes the ability and skills to compose, appreciate, and perform musical patterns. Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to comprehend other people’s intentions, motivations, and desires to work with them effectively. Intrapersonal intelligence is an individual’s capacity to develop an effective working model that comprises their desires, fears, and capabilities and use the model effectively to regulate their life. Naturalistic intelligence entails the ability to recognize and classify numerous environmental species, including flora and fauna. My strengths lie along with intrapersonal, interpersonal, naturalistic, linguistic, and logical intelligence.(Childbearing after menopause)

  • Define fluid and crystallized intelligence. Does our intelligence increase, decrease, or stay the same as we age? Why?

Fluid intelligence comprises comprehension, reasoning, and problem-solving. On the other hand, crystallized intelligence entails recalling stored and past experiences. Both types of intelligence rely on different brain systems, although they interrelate in performing different tasks. Fluid intelligence is an individual’s ability to reason and address complex issues and information around them. Crystallized intelligence entails learning and knowledge, and skills acquired over a lifetime. Fluid intelligence allows people to think efficiently and reason flexibly to address new problems without using past experiences and knowledge gathered over time. It enables the perception and inference drawing regarding relationships among variables and conceptualizing abstract details that help solve problems. Crystallized intelligence allows individuals to use their skills and knowledge gathered previously to solve problems. Intelligence can change for an individual, but mostly it is stable across their lifespan. Individual abilities and intelligence change over time and as they age because individuals are more capable at an older age than younger. Although the intelligence quotient is constant as people age, the intelligence ability tends to change. Verbal or crystallized intelligence increase continuously with age, but fluid or nonverbal intelligence increases constantly until the mid-20s to 30s, then gradually decreases with age. (Childbearing after menopause) 

  • Describe each of the five levels in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.  How do each of these levels build on the one before it?

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs has five basic categories: physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization. Physiological needs are basic physical needs such as eating when hungry and drinking when thirsty. These needs require an individual effort to meet them to maintain constant levels in different body systems. They are the essential needs that people should prioritize to meet. The need for a safe environment arises after meeting the physiological needs. A safe environment is crucial from early childhood and includes safety from violence, abuse, disasters, crises that include health and financial. Love and belonging follow the safety needs and comprise the feeling of being loved and accepted. It incorporates family, peer, and romantic relationships. People want to feel they belong in a social group, and they feel loved by and love towards others. The esteem needs entail people’s desire to feel worthy and good about themselves. Maslow categorizes esteem into 1) the feeling of self-confidence and feeling good about oneself and 2) feeling valued by other people; for instance, other people recognize and appreciate one’s efforts, accomplishments, and contributions. Self-actualization involves the feeling of fulfillment where individuals feel they have lived up to their potential. Everyone chases self-actualization, and it is the most challenging need to meet. These needs are interrelated, and an individual progresses from one need to another through the hierarchy. People should satisfy the needs lower down the hierarchy before satisfying the needs up.     

  • What is the difference between dementia and delirium? Please list the five stages of Alzheimer’s disease.  What are the biological causes that can be seen in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients? What are some reversible dementia-like symptoms?

Dementia stems from the brain’s anatomic changes, begins slowly, and is typically irreversible. Delirium results from acute illness or drug toxicity, sometimes life-threatening, but it can be reversible. Delirium can occur at any age but is more common among older individuals. About ten percent of older people hospitalized have delirium, and 15 to 50% of the older adults experience delirium at some point during hospital admission. Delirium occurs mainly after surgery and among residents in nursing homes and intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Young people can experience delirium, especially after drug abuse or fatal systematic disorder. Dementia affects memory and stems primarily from brain disease and other brain conditions. The five stages of Alzheimer’s disease include preclinical Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease, mild dementia resulting from Alzheimer’s disease, moderate dementia from Alzheimer’s disease, and severe dementia stemming from Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease occurs due to the complex interplay of abnormal tau and beta-amyloid proteins and other factors that can be observed in the brain. Physicians can see abnormal tau accumulation in particular brain regions associated with memory and beta-amyloid plaques between neurons. Depression, adverse drug effects, metabolic conditions, drug and alcohol abuse, normal pressure hydrocephalus, space-occupying lesions, and nutrition deficiencies are examples of reversible dementia-like symptoms.(Childbearing after menopause)  

  • Define what Erikson refers to as ego integrity versus despair. Think about the older people in your life.  Do they show a sense of integrity or despair?  Support your position with evidence.
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Erikson’s ego integrity versus despair is the eighth and final stage of psychosocial development. It commences at age 65 to death. Individuals in this stage reflect on their life, celebrating achievements and regretting not having achieved specific goals, leading to feelings of bitterness and despair. Individual productivity slows down as people become senior citizens. They retire and begin exploring life as retired individuals. According to Erikson, individuals who perceive their lives as unproductive tend to feel guilty about their lives and feel they would have done better to accomplish their life goals. They are more dissatisfied with their life, developing despair that can lead to depression and hopelessness. Those who feel successful develop the virtue of wisdom to look back on their lives, feeling satisfied. They have the perception of closure and completeness and are ready to die peacefully. Most older adults I have encountered in my neighborhood are mostly bitter, and I believe they have a sense of despair. They extend their bitterness to others, especially young people, and disagree with most things that younger people engage in. My grandfather shows a sense of integrity because he is very wise and always gives advice on achieving the best in life. He is proud of his older age and counts it as a blessing.      

  1. Define the term ageism and provide an example of how ageist attitudes affect the elderly.  How might ageism cause older people to be victims of stereotype threats?

Ageism refers to the stereotyping or discrimination against other people conditioned by age. Ageism can be system or casual and describes discrimination mostly against seniors. Age stereotypes are the beliefs about the features of the aged population. They are amplified across the lifespan and manifest in positive and negative ways. Older people are perceived as wise and generative, but negatively they are perceived as unproductive and forgetful. Half of the world population is believed to hold ageist attitudes that have adverse effects on the older person’s physical and mental health, reducing their quality of life that increases the cost of addressing the health demands of the aging population. Ageism affects multiple institutions and sectors such as health and social care, the legal system, media, and the workplace. There is widespread age rationing in the healthcare system, and it is widely unrecognized and unchallenged. Older adults are perceived as boring, dependent, and helpless, stereotypes that increase social isolation and loneliness, leading to decreased quality of life and premature death. Older people, especially in marginalized regions, experience overlapping discrimination and barriers because most have health-related problems and disabilities. Age discrimination is prevalent in employment, housing and accommodation, goods, services and facilities, trade and group memberships, and contracts.  (Childbearing after menopause)

  1. How is successful aging defined today?

Rowe and Kahn’s classic concepts define successful aging as high physical, physiological, and social functioning during old age without significant health complications or diseases. Successful aging emphasizes extending healthy and functional years across the lifespan. Successful aging is a crucial concept that involves quality aging. The concept expands from the biomedical contexts to social and psychological adaptations throughout life. It can be approached from a population or individual perspective because quality health determinants can be different for different individuals and from the population. Approaching the concept from the population view entails developing and promoting policies. Successful aging comprises individuals’ health, physical, cognitive function, and life involvement outcomes from the individual perspective. Physical, functional, social, and psychological health domains should be considered when developing policies, systems, and an environment that facilitates successful aging. Successful aging focuses on ensuring older people can perform self-care that includes all activities of daily living for much longer. Healthcare providers and social workers should understand that indicators of successful aging characters vary among older adults to choose a combination that facilitates the successful aging of a specific individual.    

  1. Please define activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living and give two examples of each.

Activities of daily living (ADLs) include personal hygiene, grooming, dressing, toileting, eating, ambulating, or transferring that help manage an individual’s physical needs. Individuals with activities ADLs skills can individually care for themselves. They are used as indicators of a person’s functional status. Lack of these skills leads to dependence on other people, systems, and mechanical devices. The deficiency also leads to unsafe conditions and poor quality of life. The assessment and measurement of ADLs is a vital determiner for admission to nursing homes, hospitalization, and organizing living arrangements, and unpaid homecare. Instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) include activities people perform every day to care for themselves and their homes. They are used to evaluate how well an individual can live on their own. IADLs include cooking, transportation, laundry, cleaning, and financial management. Checkbook and medications management, safe restroom use, and continence maintenance constitute IADLs. In most cases, IADLs are considered in the last therapy when preparing patients to get back into the community and live on their own to the best of their abilities. (Childbearing after menopause)    

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Part 2: Nursing Leadership

Topic/Issue: Surrogate mothers 

Purpose: Address an ethical issue associated with the practice of nursing

1. Introduction

2. Describe the topic (One paragraph)

3. Define the scope of the ethical issue (One paragraph)

4. Describe the scope/impact of the issue on nursing (One paragraph)

5. How the issue relates to and principles identified in nursing codes of ethics.(One paragraph)

6. According to two different experts, explain two pros arguments based on principles from identified codes (Two paragraphs)

7. According to two different experts, explain two cons arguments based on principles from identified codes (Two paragraphs)

8. Describe the issue’s future as it relates to the nursing profession (One paragraph)

9. Describe the issue’s future as it relates to  clinical practice (Paragraph)

10. Conclusion

Part 3: Nursing Leadership

Topic/Issue:  Childbearing after menopause

Purpose: Address an ethical issue associated with the practice of nursing. 

1. Introduction

2. Describe the topic (One paragraph)

3. Define the scope of the ethical issue (One paragraph)

4. Describe the scope/impact of the issue on nursing (One paragraph)

5. How the issue relates to and principles identified in nursing codes of ethics.(One paragraph)

6. According to two different experts, explain two pros arguments based on principles from identified codes (Two paragraphs)

7. According to two different experts, explain two cons arguments based on principles from identified codes (Two paragraphs)

8. Describe the issue’s future as it relates to the nursing profession (One paragraph)

9. Describe the issue’s future as it relates to  clinical practice (Paragraph)

10. Conclusion

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Childbearing after menopause
Childbearing after menopause

Part 4: Nursing Leadership

Topic/Issue:  Assisted suicide

Purpose: Address an ethical issue associated with the practice of nursing

1. Introduction

2. Describe the topic (One paragraph)

3. Define the scope of the ethical issue (One paragraph)

4. Describe the scope/impact of the issue on nursing (One paragraph)

5. How the issue relates to and principles identified in nursing codes of ethics.(One paragraph)

6. According to two different experts, explain two pros arguments based on principles from identified codes (Two paragraphs)

7. According to two different experts, explain two cons arguments based on principles from identified codes (Two paragraphs)

8. Describe the issue’s future as it relates to the nursing profession (One paragraph)

9. Describe the issue’s future as it relates to  clinical practice (Paragraph)

10. Conclusion

Part 5: Literature review

PICOT question:  IN POST-SURGICAL BARIATRIC PATIENTS, HOW THE IMPLEMENTATION OF DVT PROPHYLAXIS VERSUS  THE NON-USE OF PROPHYLACTIC METHODS, DECREASE THE RISK OF PULMONARY EMBOLISM DURING 15 WEEKS?

Population: POST-SURGICAL BARIATRIC PATIENTS

Health problem: RISK OF PULMONARY EMBOLISM

Time: 15 WEEKS

Intervention: IMPLEMENTATION OF DVT PROPHYLAXIS

Comparison: THE NON-USE OF PROPHYLACTIC METHODS

1. Introduction (Two paragraphs)

a. Introduce the topic of the paper.

b. Describe the health problem

c. Describe data and statistics

i. National

ii. Regional (Miami)

d. Purpose statement

e. What will be addressed in the proposed program

2. Describe the vulnerable population including  (One paragraph per each request: 2, 2a, and 2b=  Total of Three paragraphs) : 

a. Describe the impact of social determinants on health for your selected population.

b. Describe the risk factors that make this a vulnerable population

3. Literature review of  six research attached (one paragraph per paper= Total of six paragraphs)

a. Literature review 

b. Source title

c. Problem/purpose

d. Sample

e. Method

f. findings

g. limitations

4. Make a review that evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of all papers (one paragraph).

5. Proposal (Three paragraphs)

a. Make a proposal addressing the health problem using an evidence-based intervention in your literature search to address the problem in the selected population/setting

b. Include thorough information on the specifics of this intervention which include

i. Resources necessary

ii. Professionals involved

iii. Feasibility for a nurse in an advanced role.

iv. Timeline for the intervention proposed.

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