Health Assessment of the Toddler, Preschool, And School-Aged Child

Child abuse and maltreatment is not limited to a particular age—it can occur in the infant, toddler, preschool, and school-age years.

Choose one of the four age groups and outline the types of abuse most commonly seen among children of that age.

Describe warning signs and physical and emotional assessment findings the nurse may see that could indicate child abuse.

Discuss cultural variations of health practices that can be misidentified as child abuse.

Describe the reporting mechanism in your state and nurse responsibilities related to the reporting of suspected child abuse.

Identify two factors that increase the vulnerability of a child for abuse in the age group you have selected.

Health Assessment of the Toddler, Preschool, And School-Aged Child-Sample Solution

Types of Abuse in Preschool Children

Child abuse entails the intentional infliction of physical, sexual, and mental harm to children. Preschool children can be subject to physical, emotional, and sexual abuse (Zeanah & Humphreys, 2018). Further, some can be subject to neglect and lack basic needs like food, clothing, and medicine. Notably, during an assessment, nurses can identify various warning signs of physical abuse, like body and face bruises, repeated skin injuries, joint or bone fractures, and injuries not matching the provided explanations, like those incompatible with the child’s stage of development. Consequently, Zeanah and Humphreys (2018) identify signs of emotional abuse such as extreme fear of being left alone, desire for affection, low self-esteem, trauma, and behavioral changes such as aggression or withdrawal from usual activities like playing.(Child Abuse Essay Example)

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Cultural Variations

Moxibustion is a cultural health practice that may be misidentified as child abuse. Asian cultures practice moxibustion to relieve health symptoms like fever and pain (Li et al., 2018). They burn rolled pieces of moxa herb over the skin, leaving patterns similar to cigarette burns. Besides, the Chinese also practice coining, which involves rubbing oiled skin with a coin to treat fever and headaches (Cannon & Tsang, 2018). It leaves patches and burns on the back of children.(Child Abuse Essay Example)

Reporting Mechanisms and Nurse Responsibilities

Healthcare professionals, teachers, social workers, and anyone who believes a child is being abused have legal obligations to report the abuse to child welfare across the State of Arizona (Kenny et al., 2018). Nurses must report and discuss signs of abuse with their supervisors to get closure of the child’s situation. Yıldız and Tanrıverdi (2018) explain that nurses should assess the child to establish reasonable suspicion of abuse before reporting to child protection services (CPS). They are also mandated reporters of child abuse, hence should maintain objectivity when documenting the abused child’s assessment results.(Child Abuse Essay Example)

Factors increasing Vulnerability to Abuse among Preschool Children.

The risk factors for abuse of preschool children include child disability and financial stress within the family (Zeanah & Humphreys, 2018). Disabled preschool children are vulnerable to neglect, and emotional abuse since caring for them is demanding and requires closer parental or guardian supervision. Similarly, financial instability within the family may influence parents or guardians into abusing children under their care.(Child Abuse Essay Example)

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Child Abuse Essay Example


Cannon, M., & Tsang, C. (2018). Perspective on cultural competency: A review of Chinese culture. Nursing202048(12), 56-60. 10.1097/01.NURSE.0000544215.16159.88

Kenny, M. C., Abreu, R. L., Helpingstine, C., Lopez, A., & Mathews, B. (2018). Counselors’ mandated responsibility to report child maltreatment: A review of US laws. Journal of Counseling & Development96(4), 372–387.

Li, C. C., Gabriel, S. B., Luis, U., & Yin, L. M. (2018). The evolving conception and practice of acupuncture-moxibustion. Journal of Acupuncture and Tuina Science16(6), 370-374.

Yıldız, E., & Tanrıverdi, D. (2018). Child neglect and abuse: a global glimpse within the framework of evidence perspective. International nursing review65(3), 370-380.

Zeanah, C. H., & Humphreys, K. L. (2018). Child abuse and neglect. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry57(9), 637–644.

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