Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example

Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example

Introduction

Violence and abuse remain significant societal issues that disproportionately affect vulnerable populations, including women and children, the elderly, and minorities. The prevalence rates of violence and abuse against vulnerable people, including women, children, the elderly, and minorities, vary by age, ethnicity/race, and income level. Considering the impact on psychological health, violence and abuse have universal ethical, legal, and social consequences on victims. This paper discusses the ethical stance and position of the PMHNP to violence and abuse against vulnerable populations.(Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example
Loss of Life-Nursing

Statistics

The National Centre for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC) estimates that about 20 people are physically abused by their intimate partners every minute in the USA (NCIPC, 2021). This translates to over 10 million men and women going through violence and abuse. Equally, one out of nine men and one out of four women experience different forms of violence and abuse (U.S. Department of Justice, 2014). Moreover, one or more in every seven children have experienced abuse, and over 1800 children died from abuse in the USA in 2019 alone (CDC, 2021-a).(Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

The CDC further estimates that one in every ten home-living adults aged 60 and above are subjected to different forms of abuse, including neglect and exploitation (CDC, 2021-b). Between 2002 and 2016, over 640,000 older adults were reported to emergency departments for minor assaults, and about 19000 homicides were reported  (Curry et al., 2018). Equally, a 2008 nationwide survey revealed that adults aged 60 and above were at 10% of the wider population (Curry et al., 2018). The number of minority groups experiencing abuse and violence in the USA is also alarming. For example, studies have shown that members of the LGBTQ are four times more likely to be violently discriminated against (Morgan & Kena, 2019). In 2017 alone, there were about 71 victimizations in every 1000 LGBTQ people in the USA.(Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

What is abuse and violence against others?

The National Adult Protective Services Association (NAPSA) defines abuse against others as a form of mistreatment by a person that causes deliberate physical injury to another (NAPSA, n.d.). The World Health Organization refers to violence as the actual or threatened use of force against another person, oneself, group, or community, resulting from or likely to cause deprivation, maldevelopment, physical harm, or death (as cited in (Bhavsar & Bhugra, 2018).(Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Vulnerable Population: Pregnant Women and Children

Violence and abuse against women and children have a negative physical and psychological impact, usually associated with physical force and sexual abuse. The social and health factors that predispose pregnant women and children to violence and abuse are interrelated. Factors such as drug and substance abuse and patriarchy have been shown to contribute to violence and abuse of women and children (Hamberger, Larsen & Lehrner, 2017; Mshweshwe, 2020).(Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

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For children, poverty-related stress factors, including being unwanted, chronic illness, developmental disabilities, unplanned pregnancy, physical disabilities, and emotional/behavioral difficulties, contribute to violence and abuse towards children (CDC, 2021-a; Christian & Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect, 2015). For women and children, intimate partner violence during pregnancy confers risks to the mother and the neonate due to increased risks of premature birth, low birth weight, and consequent developmental problems (Berhanie et al., 2019). Equally, abused children are often malnourished and suffer from mental health illnesses, including anxiety and depression.(Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Vulnerable Population: Elder Abuse

Elder abuse has significant physical and psychological effects on victims due to inherent mental and physical health deterioration (CDC, 2016). The prevalence of elder abuse is high among caregivers, and dementia is considered a significant risk factor of physical and psychological abuse due to feelings of anxiety and burden from the elderly (Orfila et al., 2018). Moreover, adults with a history of abuse experiences fearfulness, anxiety, experience trust issues, and are often wary of others. Physical injuries can be minor such as cuts, scratches, bruises, and welts, or significant with long-lasting disabilities, including head injuries, broken bones, chronic pain, and soreness of wounds sustained. These injuries can sometimes complicate existing health problems, leading to premature death.(Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

The National Centre for Elder Abuse steers the advocacy against elder abuse by improving the nationwide response to victimization and abuse against eh elderly by providing relevant information, education, and service to individuals and organizations supporting the elderly (NCEA, n.d.). The NCEA develops programs, initiatives, and models to serve older adults and disseminate information to professionals to identify and report elder abuse. The NCEA also provides tools, technical support, and collaboration with partners to detect, intervene, and prevent elder abuse.(Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Vulnerable Population: Minorities

Minority groups such as the LGBTQ faces significant violence and abuse to their affiliation. The LGBTQ group encounters violent victimization leading to simple or aggravated assaults, rape, or sexual assault by people known or strangers (Morgan & Kena, 2019). Consequently, various institutions have strongly come out to advocate for the universal rights to sexual identity. For example, the LGBTQ ADVOCACY center focuses on advancing equity and inclusivity for LGBTQ members, affirming mental health services, and restorative justice principles (Gaycenter.org, n.d.). The LGBTQ ADVOCACY center also supports LGBTQ visibility and economic justice.(Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Screenings

Vulnerable populations at risk of violence and abuse should be screened to establish mitigation and preventive measures. This includes the establishment of risks factors for women and child abuse, including drug and substance abuse addiction, age, unemployment, marital difficulties, and economic hardships (Curry et al., 2018). For elder abuse, risk factors include lack of social support, isolation, poor health, shared environment, low-income, functional and psychological impairments.(Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

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The Partner Violence Screen (PVS), Hurt, Insulted, Threaten, Scream (HITS), Extended- HITS, and Parent Screening Questionnaire (PSQ) are some of the standard tools used to screen for the risks of abuse against the vulnerable population (Curry et al., 2018). Other screening tools include the Humiliation, Afraid, Rape, Kick (HARK), Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (HS-EAST), and Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST). However, a final screening for abuse and violence against adults should be supported by signs and symptoms of abuse.(Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

PMHNP role in advocacy and prevention

The PMHNPs stand against violence and abuse of any form towards the vulnerable population. PMHNPs play significant roles in using the available resources and skills to screen individuals at risk of or have experienced violence and abuse. Significantly, violence and abuse have psychological effects characterized by distress, anxiety, PTSD, substance abuse, and homicide/suicide ideation (Curry et al., 2018). PHMNPs treat mental health conditions and raise awareness on the causal factors, ensuring that mental health issues are reflected on the local, state, and federal health agenda (Crumb, Haskins & Brown, 2019).(Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

PMHNPs’ stand against violence and abuse stems from their obligation to observe fundamental human rights by protecting patients’ rights and dignity. PHMNPs have to treat victims of violence and abuse with compassion and respect despite their clinical status, employing clinical concepts such as abused-focused therapy. Moreover, PHMNPs advocate for the rights of the victims of violence and abuse, referring them to existing support services/programs to reduce their exposure and the associated mental and physical harm. Equally, PHMNPs’ are obliged to report perceived or identified cases of violence and abuse to the state or local level representatives/authorities.(Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example
Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example 1

Conclusion

Violence and abuse are crucial population health issues across the USA. Violence and abuse are forms of actual or threatened and deliberate use of physical force or mistreatment of other individuals.  Pregnant women, children, elderly persons, and minority groups are all predisposed to risks of abuse and violence. While the prevalence of violence and abuse of vulnerable populations continue to rise, various institutions, private and public, have come up to strongly advocate for the vulnerable people and provide adequate responses to the consequences of abuse and violence. Equally, PHMNPs play crucial roles in advocating against abuse and violence by reporting clinical classes and referring victims to representation and authorities for justice to prevail.(Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Reference

Christian, C. W., & Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect. (2015). The evaluation of suspected child physical abuse. Pediatrics135(5), e1337-e1354. (Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/early/2015/04/21/peds.20150356.full.pdfThe National Centre for Elder Abuse (n.d.). What we do. Retrieved 28 October 2021, from https://ncea.acl.gov/What-We-Do.aspx

Berhanie, E., Gebregziabher, D., Berihu, H., Gerezgiher, A., & Kidane, G. (2019). Intimate partner violence during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a case-control study. Reproductive Health16(1), 1-9. (Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)https://doi.org/10.1186/s12978-019-0670-4 

Mshweshwe, L. (2020). Understanding domestic violence: masculinity, culture, traditions. Heliyon6(10), e05334. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05334 

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Hamberger, L. K., Larsen, S. E., & Lehrner, A. (2017). Coercive control in intimate partner violence. Aggression and Violent Behavior37, 1-11.(Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2017.08.003  

Bhavsar, V., & Bhugra, D. (2018). Violence towards people with mental illness: assessment, risk factors, and management. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 72(11), 811-820.(Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)  https://doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12775

Curry, S. J., Krist, A. H., Owens, D. K., Barry, M. J., Caughey, A. B., Davidson, K. W., … & U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2018). Screening for intimate partner violence, elder abuse, and abuse of vulnerable adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force final recommendation statement. JAMA320(16), 1678-1687. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.14741 

Morgan, R. E., & Kena, G. (2019). Criminal victimization, 2018. Bureau of Justice Statistics845. https://bjs.ojp.gov/content/pub/pdf/cv17.pdf

Orfila, F., Coma-Solé, M., Cabanas, M., Cegri-Lombardo, F., Moleras-Serra, A., & Pujol-Ribera, E. (2018). Family caregiver mistreatment of the elderly: prevalence of risk and associated factors. BMC public health18(1), 1-14. (Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5067-8

The CDC. (2016). Understanding Elder Abuse: Fact Sheet. Retrieved 28 October 2021, from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/em-factsheet-a.pdf

Crumb, L., Haskins, N., & Brown, S. (2019). Integrating social justice advocacy into mental health counseling in rural, impoverished American communities. Professional Counselor9(1), 20-34. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.15241/lc.9.1.20

U.S. Department of Justice. (April 2014). Nonfatal Domestic Violence, 2003–2012. Retrieved 27 October 2021, from (Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)https://bjs.ojp.gov/content/pub/pdf/ndv0312.pdf

The World Health Organization. (March 2021). WHO Region of the Americas Fact Sheet Violence Against Women Prevalence Estimates, 2018. Retrieved 28 October 2021, from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/341592/WHO-SRH-21.11-eng.pdf 

Centers for Disease Prevention and Control. (March 2021-a). Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect. Retrieved 27 October 2021, from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/childabuseandneglect/fastfact.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (June 2021-b). Preventing Elder Abuse. Retrieved 27 October 2021, from (Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/elderabuse/fastfact.html

Gaycenter.org. (n.d.). LGBTQ ADVOCACY. Retrieved 28 October 2021, from https://gaycenter.org/advocacy/

National Centre for Injury Prevention and Control. (November 2021). National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Summary Report.  Retrieved 27 October 2021, from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/nisvs_report2010-a.pdf

Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example
Advocacy against Violence and Abuse Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example 2

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