Ethical and Legal Foundations of PMHNP Care-Nursing Paper Examples

Response to Carleah (Ethical and Legal Foundations-Nursing Paper Examples)

Your post on the ethical and legal issues in involuntary hospitalizations is elaborative and informative. I want to highlight the cultural considerations that may impact involuntary hospitalizations. Involuntary hospitalizations can improve the treatment outcomes among American evangelicals who show reluctance to seek psychological help (Lloyd et al., 2021). These individuals assume that psychopathology is associated with immoral living and, hence prefer to seek religious support (Ethical and Legal Foundations-Nursing Paper Examples).

Ethical and Legal Foundations-Nursing Paper Examples
Ethical and Legal Foundations-Nursing Paper Examples

Besides, Shea et al. (2022) observe that involuntary hospitalizations in the US are characterized by high rates of racial inequality, with people of color exhibiting an increased risk of forced hospitalizations than whites. These views forged along racial lines negatively impact the use of involuntary treatments among mentally ill people of color. Also, involuntary hospitalizations affect cultural values of individualism and collectivism, which focus on patients’ rights and personal relationships. Nickerson (2021) explains that Western cultures value individualism and collectivism, which are likely violated by involuntary hospitalizations, hindering positive treatment outcomes among mentally ill people (Ethical and Legal Foundations-Nursing Paper Examples).


Lloyd, C. E., Reid, G., & Kotera, Y. (2021). From whence cometh my help? Psychological distress and help-seeking in the evangelical Christian church. Frontiers in Psychology, 5888.

Nickerson, C. (2021). Individualistic cultures and behavior. Simply Psychology

Shea, T., Dotson, S., Tyree, G., Ogbu-Nwobodo, L., Beck, S., & Shtasel, D. (2022). Racial and Ethnic Inequities in Inpatient Psychiatric Civil Commitment. Psychiatric Services73(12), 1322-1329.

Response to Anne

You have an excellent post on the ethical and legal considerations of using restraints in patient care. I want to explore the cultural considerations that may impact individuals’ use of restraint in patient care. Nurses should maintain cultural competence by being non-judgemental about a patient’s cultural beliefs and instead value those beliefs to ensure patient-centered care. Restraints could be used to orchestrate racism against black Americans, as Wong et al. (2021) reported in their study on the relationship between race and physical restraints in emergency departments (Ethical and Legal Foundations-Nursing Paper Examples).

Additionally, most Americans, especially whites, perceive the restraint of elders as an adverse and aggressive approach to patient care. More so, older people remain fragile and ought to remain accorded maximum comfort, not restraint and seclusion (de Bruijn et al., 2019). In this case, nurses of white origin are less likely to apply restraint to older people during care unless they need to prevent the patients from harming themselves (Ethical and Legal Foundations-Nursing Paper Examples).


de Bruijn, W., Daams, J. G., van Hunnik, F. J., Arends, A. J., Boelens, A. M., Bosnak, E. M., … & Mocking, R. J. (2020). Physical and pharmacological restraints in hospital care: Protocol for a systematic review. Frontiers in psychiatry10, 921.

Wong, A. H., Whitfill, T., Ohuabunwa, E. C., Ray, J. M., Dziura, J. D., Bernstein, S. L., & Taylor, R. A. (2021). Association of race/ethnicity and other demographic characteristics with the use of physical restraints in the emergency department. JAMA network open4(1), e2035241-e2035241. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.35241

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