Best Summary of Epilepsy, Cerebral Palsy and Prader Willi Syndrome

Epilepsy, Cerebral Palsy, and Prader Willi Syndrome are significant neurological conditions because they impair cognitive functions. An understanding of the disorders is important since treatment and management options exist. This article summarizes the important aspects of Epilepsy, Cerebral Palsy, and Prader Willi Syndrome.

Epilepsy

It is a brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures, muscle jerks, and severe and prolonged convulsions.

  • Source: Alarcon, G. (2009). Epilepsy. New York: Oxford University Press.

Cause

Caused by lack of oxygen, genetics or brain damage.

Video on the Causes of Epilepsy

Main characteristics

  • Blue skin color and breathing difficulties.
  • Jerking and stiff legs.

Physical support

Physical support might involve employing safety measures to reduce the risk of injury and accident and educating on the need for support and proper medication e.g., anti-epileptic medicines.

Social support

Social support might involve encouraging interaction and communication to avoid feelings of isolation.

Cognitive support

cognitive support might involve providing memory and visual aid.

Cerebral palsy

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a spectrum of neurological illnesses that impair muscle tone and mobility.

  • Source: Behrman, R. E., Butler, A. S., & Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Understanding Premature Birth and Assuring Healthy Outcomes. (2007). Preterm birth: Causes, consequences, and prevention. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.
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Causes

Caused by brain injury or aberrant brain development, which often occurs before, during, or shortly after birth.

Main characteristics

  1. Sight problems like farsightedness, nearsightedness, and strabismus
  2. Stiff or weak muscles
  3. Poor muscle control and coordination
  4. Poor balance and difficulty with fine motor tasks
  5. Unusual movements or difficulty walking
  6. Difficulty speaking or swallowing
  7. Seizures
  8. Developmental delays

Physical support

  • Mobility support: Might involve providing mobility aids e.g., walker, crutches, and wheelchair.
  • Daily activity support: Might involve providing feeding, showering, grooming and dressing support.

Social support

Social support might involve encouraging interaction and communication to avoid feelings of isolation.

Cognitive support

  • Speech therapy support where children are unable to speak correctly or fluently.
  • Educational support.

Prader Willi Syndrome

Prader Willi Syndrome (PWS) is an uncommon genetic condition that impairs both cognitive and physical development.

  • Source: Stratton, K. R., Howe, C. J., Battaglia, F. C., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (U.S.), Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders, Institute of Medicine (U.S..) Committee to Study Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. (1996). Fetal alcohol syndrome: Diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention, and treatment. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.

Cause

PWS is caused by a chromosomal abnormality that occurs during fetal development. It is particularly caused by missing genetic information from the copy of chromosome 15 inherited from the father.

Main characteristics

  • Narrow bi frontal skull.
  • Poor muscle tone and low birth weight
  • Decreased appetite and slow weight gain in infancy
  • Delayed development of motor skills such as sitting and walking
  • Intellectual disability or learning problems
  • Obsessive-compulsive behavior and an abnormal interest in food
  • Hormonal imbalances and abnormal growth patterns
A Summary of Epilepsy, Cerebral Palsy and Prader Willi Syndrome
Prader Willi Characteristics

Physical support

  • Weight maintenance support
  • Daily activity support
  • Medication administration support
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Social support

Social support might involve encouraging interaction and communication to avoid feelings of isolation.

Cognitive support

Routine meal support and education on diet management.

Related FAQs

1. What is the main cause of epilepsy?

Caused by lack of oxygen, genetics or brain damage.

2. What is the most common cause of Prader-Willi syndrome?

PWS is caused by a chromosomal abnormality that occurs during fetal development. It is particularly caused by missing genetic information from the copy of chromosome 15 inherited from the father.

3. What is the main cause of cerebral palsy?

Caused by brain injury or aberrant brain development, which often occurs before, during, or shortly after birth.

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