Emergency management refers to the organization and coordination processes of data-driven resources and responsibilities towards unprecedented events. Its primary purpose is to avert the harmful effects of emergencies by reducing their prevalence and helping communities build resilience (McCreight & Harrop, 2019). The history of emergency management stretches back to many centuries since emergencies existed in prehistoric times (Emergency Management-Nursing).
Although emergency management is often used in major disasters, it applies to managerial functions as well. In the past, communities with experienced disasters approached emergencies differently because they had ardent response systems that could withstand disaster events and aftermaths. Over the years, emergency management has emerged and evolved because it aims at keeping communities safe and frameworks that reduce vulnerability to emergencies.
The emergency management cycle is composed of four processes: preparation, mitigation, response, and recovery. The preparation stage entails adequate preparedness, where communities take precautions in anticipation of emergencies to facilitate response and enhance readiness (Hildebrand, 2020)(Emergency Management-Nursing).
Mitigation is the process of initiating efforts to reduce the effects of crises. Likewise, response stages denote actions carried out during emergencies to save lives and property from the extreme effects of disasters. Lastly, recovery processes occur after emergencies and seek to restore normal activities by educating communities, rebuilding, and establishing robust response systems(Emergency Management-Nursing).
The 9/11 attacks that occurred in September played a significant role in the growth of emergency management. It tested US security institutions’ preparedness for disaster events. Numerous hurdles occurred, including communication problems between critical players responsible for coordinating and managing the situation (Manning, 2020)(Emergency Management).
One major problem was that the systems being used were overwhelmed with greater loads than they were accustomed failing to operate effectively. The aftermath of the 9/11 attacks informed US security systems and emergency institutions to enhance and further develop their response systems. As a result, emergency management has had significant developments since its emergence(Emergency Management-Nursing).
Hildebrand, S. (2020). Representative bureaucracy in emergency management: Attitudes about contemporary emergency management policy and politics in local agencies. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 17(3). doi.org/10.1515/jhsem-2019-0009
Manning, S. (2020). Strategic planning in emergency management: Evaluating the impacts on local program quality. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 17(3). doi.org/10.1515/jhsem-2019-0051
McCreight, R., & Harrop, W. (2019). Uncovering the real recovery challenge: What emergency management must do. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 16(3). doi.org/10.1515/jhsem-2019-0024