Depressive Disorder Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example

Depressive Disorder Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example

Depressive Disorder

Persistent depressive disorder (PDD), also known as dysthymia, is a more chronic form of depression consistent with a mood disturbance lasting at least one year in children and adolescents (American Psychiatric Association, 2020).(Depressive Disorder Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Depressive Disorder Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example
Depressive Disorder Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example 1

Signs and Symptoms

It is characterized by depressive mood for most of the day, presence of poor appetite/overeating, insomnia/hypersomnia, fatigue/low energy, poor concentration, low self-esteem, or hopelessness, irritability, and meets the criteria for depressive disorder continuously for one year (Patel & Rose, 2021). For an individual to meet the diagnostic criteria for depressive disorder, the symptoms must not be explained by other disorders, including schizoaffective, delusional, Schizophrenia, Schizophrenia, or psychotic disorder (American Psychiatric Association 2020). In addition, these symptoms must cause significant impairment or distress, affecting functional areas, including relationships and school.(Depressive Disorder Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)


Dysthymia is a multifactorial condition, and although it may be unclear, it is primarily associated with psychological abnormalities. Studies have associated biological, social, and psychological factors such as prior mental illness, anxiety, life stressors, trauma, epigenetics, genetics, neuroticism, and other social health determinants with this condition (Schramm et al., 2020). Arguably, PDD causes psychological changes in the brain and alters brain chemistry (biological), is more common in blood relatives (genetics), and is associated with life events such as bereavement and financial deprivation. Risk factors include having a close relative diagnosed with a depressive disorder, traumatic encounters, negative personality traits, and mental health history.(Depressive Disorder Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Pharmacological Treatments

Common and recommended pharmacological intervention is antidepressants. However, the antidepressants commonly prescribed for PDD are not limited to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), melatonin receptor agonists, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors, serotonin 5 HT2C receptor antagonists, selective noradrenaline dopamine reuptake inhibitors, and alpha2‐receptor‐antagonists (Liebherz et al., 2017).(Depressive Disorder Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Non-Pharmacological Treatments

The primary non-pharmacological treatment of persistent depression is psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, also known as psychological counseling or talk therapy, is a general term that refers to talking with a health professional about an individual’s condition. The choice of psychotherapy for persistent depressive depression varies and includes Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy are the most common psychotherapeutic intervention for persistent depression (Patel & Rose, 2019). Moreover, supportive therapy is effective for persistent depressive disorder. Generally, psychotherapy allows patients to adjust to the present crisis, identify depression triggers, and enable individuals to change behaviors, identify coping mechanisms, and explore experiences and social relationships. As such, individuals gain a sense of control and satisfaction with their life.(Depressive Disorder Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Community resources

Children and adolescents diagnosed with persistent depressive disorder require various community support to support their recovery. Typically, PDD affects individual behavior and activities that relieve depressive symptoms. Depression support groups allow adolescents to talk about their experiences, understanding, empathy, offering each other encouragement and support. Mental Health America is a non-profit organization that provides communities with online support groups and discussions for various mental health issues. Other community-based organizations such as Anxiety and Depression Association of America, NAMI connection, and Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance offer support to families and individuals with mental health conditions, including PDD.(Depressive Disorder Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)


An ideal referral for PDD among children and adolescents is a pediatric psychiatrist. A referral is necessary for further assessment and recommendation. Usually, referrals are instigated by non-responsiveness to prescribed intervention or when there is a complication. Psychiatrists specializing in pediatric mental health issues have the knowledge crucial for definitive diagnosis and intervention. (Depressive Disorder Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)  

Depressive Disorder Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example
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American Psychiatric Association. (2020). The American psychiatric association practice guideline for the treatment of patients with Schizophrenia. American Psychiatric Pub.(Depressive Disorder Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Melrose, S. (2019). Persistent Depressive Disorder or Dysthymia: An Overview of Assessment and Treatment Approaches. Open Journal of Depression(Depressive Disorder Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example).

Schramm, E., Klein, D. N., Elsaesser, M., Furukawa, T. A., & Domschke, K. (2020). Review of dysthymia and persistent depressive disorder: history, correlates, and clinical implications. The Lancet Psychiatry7(9), 801-812(Depressive Disorder Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example).

Liebherz, S., Machmutow, K., Jansen, A., Meister, R., Watzke, B., Härter, M. C., & Kriston, L. (2017). Continuation and maintenance treatments for persistent depressive disorder. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews2017(11).

Gartlehner, G., Wagner, G., Matyas, N., Titscher, V., Greimel, J., Lux, L., … & Lohr, K. N. (2017). Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for major depressive disorder: review of systematic reviews. BMJ open7(6), e014912.

Patel, R. K., & Rose, G. M. (July 2021). Persistent Depressive Disorder.

Patel, R. K., & Rose, G. M. (2019). Persistent Depressive Disorder.

Depressive Disorder Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example
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