The purpose of this assignment is to discuss concepts of epidemiology and apply nursing theories and research to a communicable disease. Refer to “Communicable Disease Chain,” “Chain of Infection,” and the CDC websites, all located in the topic Resources, for assistance when completing this assignment.
Choose a communicable disease topic from the resources mentioned above or you may select one from the list below:
- Hepatitis B
- E. coli
- Hepatitis A
Write a paper (1,000-1,500 words) in which you apply the concepts of epidemiology and nursing to research a communicable disease. Refer to “Communicable Disease Chain,” “Chain of Infection,” and the CDC websites, located in the topic Resources, for assistance when completing this assignment.
- Describe the chosen communicable disease, including causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment, and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence).
- Explain why this is a reportable disease. Provide details about reporting criteria.
- Describe the social determinants of health and how those factors contribute to the development of the chosen communicable disease.
- Discuss the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to the communicable disease you have selected. Include the host factors, agent factors (presence or absence), and environmental factors.
- Identify any special considerations or notifications for the epidemiologic triangle (community, schools, or general population).
- Explain the importance of demographic data to community health.
- Describe the role of the community health nurse in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention through tasks such as case finding, reporting, data collection, analysis, and follow-up. Provide an example of how Christian worldview can be integrated by a community health nurse when working with a population impacted by the communicable disease selected.
- Identify at least one national agency or organization that addresses the communicable disease chosen and describe how the organizations contribute to resolving or reducing the impact of disease.
- Discuss a global implication of the disease. How is this addressed in other countries or cultures? Is this disease endemic to a particular area? Provide an example.
A minimum of three peer-reviewed or professional references (i.e., professional health organizations like CDC, WHO, OSHA, DHS) is required.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Course Resources if you need assistance.
Epidemiology Paper-Sample Solution
Nursing and epidemiology are crucial professions in the medical industry. They are essential in detecting, preventing, and managing infectious diseases. Hepatitis B is a viral virus that damages the liver. It is brought on by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is spread by contact with infected blood or bodily fluids like the vaginal and semen. Fatigue, stomach pain, appetite loss, nausea and vomiting, joint pain, and jaundice are a few Hepatitis B symptoms. Hepatitis B complications might include liver cancer, cirrhosis, and liver failure. Hepatitis B cannot be cured, although treatment can help control symptoms and lower the chance of complications (Lim et al., 2020). The target population includes those who have not received the entire course of vaccinations against Hepatitis B and those who engage in high-risk behaviors, including drug use that involves injections or unprotected intercourse with many partners.(Concepts of epidemiology Essay Example)
Due to its threat to the public’s health, hepatitis B is a condition that must be reported. The illness spreads rapidly in a population because it can be passed from person to person by blood or bodily fluids. Hepatitis B case reporting is required by law in all states and territories of the United States. The prerequisites for reporting vary widely by state but often entail the following: positive HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM test findings, as well as clinical symptoms consistent with hepatitis B infection. Healthcare professionals must notify the neighborhood health department of all occurrences of hepatitis B.(Concepts of epidemiology Essay Example)
Social Determinants of Health
The circumstances in which people are born, develop, live, work, and age impact their health outcomes. Poverty, a lack of access to treatment, and a lack of knowledge are social determinants of health that help Hepatitis B spread (Wu et al., 2021). Poverty increases the likelihood of people engaging in high-risk activities like injecting drugs, which raises their chance of acquiring hepatitis B. Those who do not have access to healthcare may be unable to get the Hepatitis B vaccine or receive treatment for the condition. Low education levels can also impact health outcomes by reducing a person’s awareness of how to avoid and manage the condition.
The epidemiologic triangle for Hepatitis B can be explained as follows: Environmental Factors: The social and physical conditions that allow the spread of the Hepatitis B virus are among the environmental variables. This includes unsanitary housing arrangements, a need for more healthcare supplies, and congested living situations. Host Factors: Individual traits that raise the chance of contracting Hepatitis B are considered host factors. Age, gender, lifestyle choices, and immunological condition are some variables (Lim et al., 2020). Agent Factors: The hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is spread by bodily fluids like blood, is the agent factor for hepatitis B. Spreading the virus is simple. This is through infected needles, unprotected sex, or from mother to child during childbirth because it is highly contagious and may survive outside the body for up to a week.(Concepts of epidemiology Essay Example)
Special Considerations and Notifications
Special considerations and alerts are crucial for the community, schools, and the general public due to the nature of Hepatitis B transmission. For instance, public health professionals should inform the population about the value of immunization and healthy sexual behavior. Schools should implement policies to stop the spread of the virus, like utilizing single-use needles for medical procedures and promoting safe sex among students. Also, people highly susceptible to contracting Hepatitis B, such as healthcare workers or people with specific medical conditions, should be informed of the risks and recommended to take the necessary precautions. Finally, people with HBV infection should receive support to manage their disease and advice on preventing transmission to others (Steffen et al., 2020).
Importance of Demographic Data to Community Health
To fully comprehend how Hepatitis B affects various populations, demographic information is essential. Those born in endemic regions, immigrants, and people engaged in high-risk activities like drug injection or unprotected intercourse are more likely to have hepatitis B than other demographic categories. Community health experts can identify high-risk communities and provide targeted interventions by evaluating demographic data to stop and limit the spread of hepatitis B.(Concepts of epidemiology Essay Example)
Role of Community Health Nurse in Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B
The prevention and management of Hepatitis B depend heavily on community health nurses. They participate in primary prevention initiatives such as promoting immunization, informing the public about the disease, and supporting healthy practices. In order to locate and stop outbreaks, they also take part in secondary preventive actions like case finding, contact tracing, and reporting. Finally, they participate in tertiary prevention initiatives, such as offering assistance and treatment to those with chronic Hepatitis B (Wu et al., 2021).
By highlighting the importance of empathy and compassion for those affected by the disease, a community health nurse can include a Christian perspective in their work in hepatitis B prevention and control. By offering emotional support, listening to patients’ problems, and, if necessary, giving resources for spiritual help, the nurse can show the love and compassion of Jesus.(Concepts of epidemiology Essay Example)
National Agency or Organization that Addresses Hepatitis B
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC: The CDC is an American national public health organization whose mission is to safeguard public health and safety by preventing and controlling illness, injury, and disability. The CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis monitors prevents and controls viral hepatitis throughout the country (Steffen et al., 2020). For the prevention and treatment of hepatitis B, the CDC has created guidelines and recommendations, including vaccine programs, screening programs, and public awareness campaigns. To prevent and manage hepatitis B, the CDC also offers training and technical assistance to healthcare and public health professionals.(Concepts of epidemiology Essay Example)
Global Implications of Hepatitis B
An estimated 257 million people live with chronic hepatitis B infection globally, making it a significant public health concern. About 10% of the population has a chronic infection in Asia, Africa, and the Pacific Islands, where the disease is most common (Steffen et al., 2020). The most common cause of liver cancer and liver-related deaths globally is hepatitis B. Promoting immunization programs, expanding access to testing and treatment, and stepping up awareness and education campaigns are just a few of the global initiatives to combat Hepatitis B. For instance, the World Health Organization (WHO) intends to use comprehensive prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and care initiatives to eradicate viral hepatitis as a danger to public health by 2030.(Concepts of epidemiology Essay Example)
The most common cause of liver cancer and liver-related deaths globally is hepatitis B. Promoting immunization programs, expanding access to testing and treatment, and stepping up awareness and education campaigns are just a few of the global initiatives to combat Hepatitis B. Poverty, a lack of access to treatment, and a lack of knowledge are social determinants of health that help Hepatitis B spread. An estimated 257 million people live with chronic hepatitis B infection globally, making it a significant public health concern. Community health experts can identify high-risk communities and provide targeted interventions by evaluating demographic data to stop and limit the spread of hepatitis B.(Concepts of epidemiology Essay Example)
Lim, J. K., Nguyen, M. H., Kim, W. R., Gish, R., Perumalswami, P., & Jacobson, I. M. (2020). Prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the United States. Official journal of the American College of Gastroenterology| ACG, 115(9), 1429–1438.
Steffen, G., Sperle, I., Leendertz, S. A., Sarma, N., Beermann, S., Thamm, R., … & Dudareva, S. (2020). The epidemiology of Hepatitis B, C, and D in Germany: A scoping review. PloS one, 15(3), e0229166.
Wu, J., Yu, J., Shi, X., Li, W., Song, S., Zhao, L., … & Li, L. (2021). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 70 cases of coronavirus disease and concomitant hepatitis B virus infection: A multicentre descriptive study. Journal of Viral Hepatitis, 28(1), 80–88.