There is immense diversity in the forms and causes of childhood disorders, ranging from brain or behavioral issues. Ideally, neurochemical or structural abnormalities may cause brain-related disorders. The problems can be innate, happening during or shortly after birth, from physical stress following an illness or injury, or emotional stress from loss or trauma.
On the other hand, behavioral problems result from difficult outward signs portrayed at school, home, or with friends. Like brain-related disorders, behavioral disorders can also arise from emotional or physical stress.Untreated childhood disorders result in severe secondary problems such as academic, social, and occupational problems, poor self-esteem, addiction, self-harm, and suicidal thoughts. Secondary problems of childhood disorders can be minimized or prevented when primary symptoms are managed.However, the lack of early assessment and proper treatment has been a major problem in managing the disorders. Therefore, there is a need for accurate and appropriate diagnosis of childhood disorders to obtain the best treatment available. Diagnosis of childhood disorder describes processes that guide the professional to identify specific problems.
Subsequently, different childhood disorders have different diagnostic criteria. The Diagnostic Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM) is an instrumental tool that helps to diagnose childhood psychological disorders. The tool offers comprehensive criteria based on the best available research literature and clinical findings concerning mental illnesses (Sarmiento & Lau, 2020).The latest diagnostic tool, DSM-5, offers a standard way of classifying and measuring mental disorders. In this case, psychologists make a diagnosis based on the observations and measurements of children’s state of mind and behavior using the published criteria that should be met for a specific diagnosis to be made. After the diagnosis, psychologists identify the patient’s needs and devise appropriate interventions. For instance, cognitive behavioral therapy, psychotherapy, medical evaluation, and management exemplify evidence-based interventions that can address the patient’s needs while improving the quality of life (Childhood Disorders).
Sarmiento, C., & Lau, C. (2020). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM‐5. The Wiley Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences: Personality Processes and Individual Differences, 125-129.