Cancer Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example

Cancer Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example

Cancer is an abnormality that involves the uncontrolled growth of cells in the body. These abnormal or malignant cells cannot die naturally during the cell’s life cycle. Cancer cells divide without stopping and can spread to the surrounding tissues if not controlled. Cancer can develop at any point in the body, including breasts, lungs, colon, skin, prostate, and ovaries. Cancer has become one of the leading causes of death in the US, and early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and stop the growth of cancer cells.(Cancer Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Diagnosis and staging of cancer

Diagnosis and staging of cancer are important procedures that help in identifying the best treatment option to control and kill the cancer cells. Physicians can suspect cancer based on an individual’s symptoms, physical examination results, and screening tests. After doctors suspect cancer, they conduct imaging studies like computed tomography (CT), ultrasonography, or x-ray. For instance, a chest x-ray is done on people with a chronic cough or breathing problems. A CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be done on people with non-ending headaches and sight difficulties. The imaging studies indicate the presence, location, and mass abnormality, but they do not confirm cancer. Needle biopsy or surgery to obtain a piece of the tumor can be used to confirm cancer. The piece is examined under a microscope to find cancer cells. Mostly a piece of tissue is used, but blood samples can be used for suspected leukemia (Gale, 2020). Physicians obtain additional evidence confirming or nullifying the cancer diagnosis through tumor markers, which are substances the tumors excrete into the bloodstream. The physician measures the blood levels of tumor markers.(Cancer Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Cancer Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example
Cancer Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example 1

After successful cancer diagnosis, staging tests are used to measure the extent of cancer in terms of location, size, and distance. Staging enables physicians to analyze and select the best form of treatment and prognosis (Rosen & Sapra, 2020). Tests during staging include physical exams, imaging tests such as CT scans, MRIs, x-rays, PET scans, endoscopy exams, lab tests of cancer cells, and biopsy. Physicians can stage cancer at different times. Clinical staging involves the determination of the extent of cancer, primarily based on physical exams, imaging studies, biopsies, and endoscopy exams. It helps assess the best treatment option. Pathological staging is done during surgery and relies on previous examinations. It offers more accurate information to help select the most viable treatment. Post-neoadjuvant therapy staging is done after the first treatment like chemo, radiation, or targeted drug therapy. Retreatment staging is done after cancer re-occurs. Major systems used in staging include the TNM system, which describes tumor (T), node (N), and metastasis (M) categories (Rosen & Sapra, 2020). Doctors can also categorize cancer as In situ, localized, regional, distant, or unknown, depending on the extent to which it has spread.(Cancer Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Three complications of cancer, the side effects of treatment, and methods to lessen physical and psychological effects

Cancer can cause numerous complications, including pain caused by some cancer. Medications can be used to lessen cancer-related pain. Fatigue is common in people with cancer, and it is particularly associated with chemotherapy or radiation therapy treatments. Cancer can cause breathing difficulties, especially if it affects the lungs and the throat (Chang et al., 2017). People with cancer also experience weight loss as it tends to take food from normal cells, depriving them of nutrients. Cancer can also lead to chemical changes in the body, which increases the risk of severe complications. Excessive thirst, frequent urination, constipation, and confusion are signs and symptoms of chemical imbalance in the body. Other complications include the unusual reaction of the immune system to cancer, brain, and nervous system.(Cancer Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Cancer treatment has several side effects such as nausea and vomiting, thinking and memory problems, neutropenia, lymphedema, and hair loss. Neutropenia is a condition of low white blood cell count, and it is typical after chemotherapy (Altun & Sonkaya, 2018). Chemotherapy drugs kill fast-growing cells, which include healthy white blood cells. Individuals have fewer white blood cells to fight other infections during chemotherapy. Some surgeries involve the removal of the lymph nodes. Radiation therapy can also damage lymph nodes, affecting proper drainage of the lymph fluid, which accumulates under the skin, causing the body to swell. Chemotherapy also leads to hair fall out.(Cancer Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Medications and treatments can be used to lessen the physical effects of cancer and cancer treatments. There are drugs to treat nausea and vomiting, breathing difficulty, fatigue, and pain. Physicians and nurses can incorporate relaxation, meditation, and stress management training to reduce psychological effects (Barre et al., 2018). Counselling, cancer talk therapy, education sessions, social support, exercise, and medication of anxiety and depression are also interventions to lessen cancer’s psychological effects.(Cancer Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Factors that contribute to the yearly incidence and mortality rates of various cancers in Americans

Major risk factors contributing to cancer incidence and mortality in the US include overweight and obesity, poor diet, alcohol use, physical inactivity, and tobacco use. Other factors include sun exposure, infected blood exposure, and sexual practices (Rock et al., 2020). Tobacco usage is the leading cause of cancer in the US. It contributes to different types of cancers such as cervical cancer, stomach cancer, colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, kidney cancer, esophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer, and lung cancer. Many people smoke cigarettes which leads to about 440,000 premature deaths from associated cancer. Physical activity has physical and mental health benefits as it reduces premature mortality, diabetes, depression, hypertension, and cancer. Studies associate physical activity with reduced colon, breast, and endometrial cancers. Adverse effects of a sedentary lifestyle can be reversed through physical activity.(Cancer Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Obesity is excess body fat that causes numerous body complications, including cancer. Obesity is a growing problem in the US. Increase adiposity is associated with the onset of cancer. Obese individuals are more at risk of cancer than non-obese ones. Obesity is linked with breast, endometrial, prostate, kidney, and colon cancers (Rock et al., 2020). The mortality rate after diagnosis is higher for obese people. There is a relationship between diet and the risk of cancer. For instance, fruits and vegetables reduce ischemic stroke, hypertension, and heart diseases. Fruits and vegetables also lower the risk of mouth, stomach, pancreatic, and bladder cancers. Consumption of foods like red meat increases the risk of colorectal cancer. Different foods are associated with different types of cancer. Alcohol consumption also contributes tremendously to cancer incidence and mortality. Alcohol is a Group A carcinogen and increases the risk of cancers affecting the liver and aerodigestive tract.(Cancer Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

How the American Cancer Society (ACS) might provide education and support

The ACS guides people through their cancer experience. The ACS can offer information and emotional support to the patient and the family. This can include free lodging and transportation, support programs, services, and resources (Schmitz et al., 2019). Cancer patients can access many national resources like support groups, social services, medical equipment, wigs and prostheses, transportation, lodging, quitline, and financial programs. The ACS can also offer daily help and support like rides to treatment, mastectomy and hair loss products, online community, and breast cancer support. I would recommend the cancer information services the ACS offers. This service provides accurate and up-to-date cancer information, available on their site 24-7. The service also includes a 24-7 helpline. Cancer information specialists are always available to help. Assistance is available in more than 200 languages. Individuals can access information on specific cancers, treatment options, medicines, side effects, pain control, coping with cancer, prevention, clinical trials, and screening. There are also community programs and services that help more than 1.4 million cancer patients and 14 million cancer survivors, family, and friends.(Cancer Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

How the nursing process is utilized to provide safe and effective care for cancer patients across the life span  

The nursing process allows nurses to identify and diagnose a problem systematically. The five phases of the nursing process include assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation (Leslie, 2018). Assessment employs data collection and critical thinking skills. The nurses collect subjective and objective data. They ask patients, families, or friends questions that relate to how they feel. The nurse then conducts examinations like physical exams and lab tests to confirm the patient’s information. Clinical judgment is used to perform a diagnosis, which is vital in planning and implementing patient care. After the physician or the nurse suspects cancer, they can conduct a biopsy, MRIs, CT scans, x-rays, and physical examination to collect more supportive evidence.(Cancer Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

The planning phase involves creating patient-specific goals that help in ensuring a positive outcome. Nurses develop nursing care plans that are tailored to a person’s unique needs. The nurses use overall and comorbid conditions to develop the care plan. Care plans are designed to improve communication, reimbursement, documentation, and care continuity for cancer patients. The goals must be specific, measurable, meaningful, attainable, action-oriented, realistic, and timely. In the implementation phase, the nurses carry out the interventions stated in the care plan. Nursing interventions for cancer patients include medication administration, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, direct and indirect care. The nurses must follow EDP standards and standard treatment protocols. Nurses should ensure patients have a sense of control over their outcomes, which encourages quicker overall recovery (Toney-Butler & Thayer, 2019). Evaluation is the final stage of ensuring effective care and positive patient outcomes. The nurses must reassess the interventions taken to ensure they meet the desired outcomes. Reassessment is necessary if there are treatment side effects, complications, or cancer reoccurrence. Reassessment involves the overall patient condition and can lead to a new care plan.(Cancer Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

How undergraduate education in liberal arts and science studies contributes to the foundation of nursing knowledge and prepares nurses to work with patients utilizing the nursing process

Nurses need liberal art courses in social and physical sciences, mathematics, and science studies. Nurses need the technical skills and the knowledge these courses offer. Nurses need to be well-rounded, excellent communicators, critically thoughtful, and culturally competent (Kooken & Kerr, 2018). These courses allow nurses to develop competencies that help enhance patient outcomes. Nurses can safely take care of their patients regardless of the role they are in. Knowledge gained also helps nurses become better leaders and learn skills and core values required to work in a stressful environment. Liberal arts and science studies encourage critical thinking. Courses like statistics help in understanding quantitative data, vital in nursing research and outcome assessment. Nurses can ask questions, think critically, evaluate and assess situations, and make informed decisions. The courses are eye-opening and help nurses become culturally competent to work with patients and families from different religious and cultural backgrounds. Cultural competence is vital in patient-centered care since nurses are more aware of individual needs and practices. Liberal arts also prepare nurses for leadership. They become more effective in communication. For instance, Advanced English Composition helps nurses become better writers and presenters.  They can also do precise and comprehensive documentation. The courses are crucial in preparing nurses to work with diverse patients and ensure positive patient outcomes.(Cancer Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Cancer Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example
Cancer Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example 2


Schmitz, K. H., Campbell, A. M., Stuiver, M. M., Pinto, B. M., Schwartz, A. L., Morris, G. S., … & Matthews, C. E. (2019). Exercise is medicine in oncology: engaging clinicians to help patients move through cancer. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 69(6), 468-484. Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Barre, P. V., Padmaja, G., Rana, S., & Tiamongla. (2018). Stress and quality of life in cancer patients: medical and psychological intervention. Indian journal of psychological medicine, 40(3), 232-238. Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Rock, C. L., Thomson, C., Gansler, T., Gapstur, S. M., McCullough, M. L., Patel, A. V., … & Doyle, C. (2020). American Cancer Society guideline for diet and physical activity for cancer prevention. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 70(4), 245-271. Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Altun, I., & Sonkaya, A. (2018). The most common side effects experienced by patients were receiving first cycle of chemotherapy. Iranian journal of public health, 47(8), 1218-1219. Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Chang, H. M., Moudgil, R., Scarabelli, T., Okwuosa, T. M., & Yeh, E. T. (2017). Cardiovascular complications of cancer therapy: best practices in diagnosis, prevention, and management: part 1. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 70(20), 2536-2551. 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.09.1095(Cancer Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Gale, R. P. (2020). Diagnosis of Cancer. Retrieved from,Staging%20Cancer,a%20prompt%20start%20of%20treatment.(Cancer Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Kooken, W. C., & Kerr, N. (2018). Blending the liberal arts and nursing: Creating a portrait for the 21st century. Journal of Professional nursing, 34(1), 60-64. Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Leslie, J. L. (2018). Employment of the Nursing Process to Facilitate Recovery from Surgery: A Case Study. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 23(2). Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Rosen, R. D., & Sapra, A. (2020). TNM Classification. StatPearls. Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Toney-Butler, T. J., & Thayer, J. M. (2019). Nursing process. StatPearls. Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example)

Cancer Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example
Cancer Abnormality Comprehensive Nursing Paper Example 3

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