Benchmark-Policy Brief

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Benchmark – Policy Brief


Start Date

Jun 5, 2023, 12:00 AM

Due Date

Jun 11, 2023, 11:59 PM




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Assessment Traits


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Assessment Description

The purpose of this assignment is to discuss the impact of an environmental public health issue and make recommendations for policy change.(Benchmark-Policy Brief EssaySample)

Research public health issues located on the American Public Health Association (APHA) website, found in the topic Resources. Select a public health issue related to an environmental issue within the U.S. healthcare delivery system and examine its effect on a specific population.

Based on the public health issue selected, in 750-1,000 words address the following:

  1. Describe the public health issue. Include the following information: (a) what population is affected, (b) at what level does it occur (local, state, or national), and (c) evidence about the issue supported by resources.
  2. Discuss how the public health issue is addressed by the current policies.
  3. Include what changes you would propose to the existing policies. Describe what steps are required to initiate policy change.
  4. Identify the necessary stakeholders required to initiate policy change (government officials, administrator) and explain the importance of their role, such as budgeting or funding.
  5. Discuss the impact on the health care delivery system.

Include three peer-reviewed sources and two other sources to support the policy brief.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Course Resources if you need assistance.

Benchmark Information

This benchmark assignment assesses the following programmatic competencies:


2.4: Participate in health care policy development to influence nursing practice and health care.

Benchmark-Policy Brief EssaySample


The ushering of the 21st century has seen climate change emerge as the most significant issue that threatens public health across the entire world. Many individuals are currently acquainted with the attribution of extreme weather conditions to climate change as well as how the same is directly associated with health effects within the context of problems in food and water security, injuries and fatalities (Benchmark-Policy Brief EssaySample). All these are caused by heatwaves, droughts, tsunamis, flooding rains. In addition to direct health effects of climate change, other indirect impacts that are to be found in literature detail alterations kin the distribution of insect-borne diseases like the Ross River virus while extended droughts increase mental health issues. It is imperative to describe the issue of air pollution and exacerbation of asthma, respiratory disease, and cardiovascular conditions. To achieve this, the paper addresses the challenging issue of how to translate literature on climate change into responses on public health through adaptation to as well as mitigation of climate change. (Benchmark-Policy Brief EssaySample)

The operational definition of term adaptation is all those responses by health services aiming to decrease the increasing health burden emanating from climate change. On the other hand, mitigation describes the health services responses, whose target is to lower greenhouse gas emissions, a major cause of climate change in order to slow the rate of global warming (Benchmark-Policy Brief EssaySample).  Similarly, a health service herein means a multidimensional entity that consists of varied and interacting components that may entail human and cultural outlooks in addition to material, spatial, and technological outlooks. National policy is meant to describe the public health actions for adaptation and mitigation of climate change at all levels starting from the federal government and trickling down to state, local, municipal, and community levels.(Benchmark-Policy Brief EssaySample)
Benchmark-Policy Brief EssaySample

Summary of the Issue

Fox et al. (2019) that policy action in the next ten years proves pivotal in the achievement of goals agreed upon across the globe to decarbonize the economy and improve resilience to a climate that is not only warmer but also extreme.  Climate change caused by excessive air pollution has been witnessed in the health of Americans due to the spiked incidence of respiratory diseases, asthma, and allergies. Studies indicate that in the last two decades, the number of Americans with asthma increased by almost 30% in the decade lasting 2001 and 2011 (Benchmark-Policy Brief EssaySample). While some may correctly argue that the increased burden is multifactorial, climate change is a key contributing factor considering that increased temperatures and carbon dioxide levels do exacerbate allergies and asthma as well.  This is because raised temperatures lead to earlier onset of their pollen season-extending this season. In addition to this, increased temperatures result in higher levels of ozone, which further contribute to increased asthma incidence. Americans’ cardiovascular health is also impacted by climate change along with three mechanisms of extreme weather, decreased air quality, and high temperatures.(Benchmark-Policy Brief EssaySample)

Description of the Policy Health Issue

Several key issues consisting of translating the literature on climate change into health services, together with the development of the workforce, appear to have been neglected. Even the developed and rich nations like the USA have no policy frameworks and evidence at the federal level, which can enable health policymakers to devolve the same to the states and territories to the local governments. While it is true that the health mentioned above issues of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases affect all individuals, this paper restates the prevalence of these diseases amongst the elderly that is those over 65 years safe for asthma and allergies (Ghanizedeh et al., 2017) (Benchmark-Policy Brief EssaySample).  Despite the US h having contributed to the bulk of research in climate change, the majority of public health leaders feel unprepared to address climate change or even being ill-equipped to implement the required such eds service adaptations. Even with the emergence of federal service-oriented policy guidelines like the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s CDC Policy on Climate Change and Public Health, there is still a dearth in modifying state health needs and the changes connected to local infrastructure in healthcare that will be needed. As such, for this paper, the increased respiratory and cardiovascular diseases among the elderly is considered at the national level.(Benchmark-Policy Brief EssaySample)

 Problem Statement

This paper opines that climate change effects on health are not solely caused by climate change but rather that they are also a function of how conditions at the local level like the absence of health services absence interact with these global forces resulting in the said health effects. For this, the author intends to address the emerging challenge regarding the understanding of and prioritization of National Health Service development for climate change to decrease the rates of cardiopulmonary diseases among the elderly and ultimately decrease the disease burden they impose on the US healthcare budget. This is because there is a need to translate scientific literature on climate change to public health policy responses in order to concentrate on adaptation to climate change, not just its mitigation. (Benchmark-Policy Brief EssaySample)

Suggestions for Addressing the Cardiopulmonary Disease Issue among the Elderly

In order to develop a comprehensive focus on how to reduce cardiopulmonary disease at the health policy level, a system-wide policy approach to climate change (SPACC) is proposed. To begin with, as a way of developing a health service, the author of this paper proposes a framework with five core elements of health services, namely, finance, workforce development, service delivery, governance and culture, and material infrastructure.  SPACC policy entails a wide range of community and health service can feasibly form part of the specific government involved or the entire community’s response to climate change. Instead of being narrowly focused on stakeholders in health interventions, SPACC policy approach includes the political leaders as well as economic experts. Suffice it to sit without using a SPACC policy approach, and it becomes inconceivable how health services could trigger key outcomes amongst the climate-vulnerable population like the elderly (Araos et al., 2016). The first step required in SPACC is that health policymakers will have to understand the possibilities of understanding adaptation as well as mitigation through governance by using a variety of processes and mechanisms like legislative, educational, technical, behavioral, and cultural (Benchmark-Policy Brief EssaySample). The second step is the modeling of service delivery through map extrapolation of both direct and indirect consequences of climate change by utilizing risk management tools. Next is that health staff in undergraduate to postgraduate will require training in health and allied disciplines while professional development is needed for those in the health allied health workforce. The last two steps will factor the cost-effectiveness of the policy program and ensure that healthcare infrastructure across the entire nation can withstand adverse weather or contribute to a green economy.(Benchmark-Policy Brief EssaySample)

Impact on the Health Care Delivery System

Lastly, the implementation of SPACC policy will positively impact on the healthcare delivery system in that the harmful effects of climate change will see the most vulnerable like children and the population of concern in this paper the elderly. While it is true that climate change is a reality, all people have a part to play like decreasing our dependence on fossil fuel land embrace use of green energies et al., 2015). Likewise, Congress can enact the necessary legislation and increase the financial vote head for healthcare endeavors that address climate change successful.(Benchmark-Policy Brief EssaySample)


Araos, M., Austin, S. E., Berrang-Ford, L., & Ford, J. D. (2016). Public health adaptation to climate change in large cities: A global baseline. International Journal of Health Services46(1), 53-78. (Benchmark-Policy Brief EssaySample)

Fox, M., Zuidema, C., Bauman, B., Burke, T., & Sheehan, M. (2019). Integrating Public Health into Climate Change Policy and Planning: State of Practice Update. International journal of environmental research and public health16(18), 3232. (Benchmark-Policy Brief EssaySample)

Gamble, J. L., Ebi, K. L., Grambsch, A. E., & Wilbanks, T. J. (2017). Analyses of the effects of global change on human health and welfare and human systems. A report by the US climate change science program and the subcommittee on global change research.

GHanizadeH, G., Heidari, M., Seifi, B., Jafari, H., & PakJouei, S. (2017). The Effect of Climate Change on Cardiopulmonary Disease-A Systematic Review. Journal of Clinical & Diagnostic Research11(12). (Benchmark-Policy Brief EssaySample)

Reis, S., Morris, G., Fleming, L. E., Beck, S., Taylor, T., White, M., & Hurley, F. (2015). Integrating health and environmental impact analysis. Public health129(10), 1383-1389. (Benchmark-Policy Brief EssaySample)


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