Analysis and Evaluation of Research-Nursing Paper Example
|Article Citation and Permalink (APA format) (Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics)
|Article 1 Sharif, L., Almutairi, K., Sharif, K., Mahsoon, A., Banakhar, M., Albeladi, S., … & Wright, R. (2023). Quantitative research on the impact of COVID‐19 on frontline nursing staff at a military hospital in Saudi Arabia. Nursing Open, 10(1), 217-229. https://doi.org/10.1002/nop2.1297
|Broad Topic Area/Title
|Quantitative research on the impact of COVID‐19 on frontline nursing staff at a military hospital in Saudi Arabia.
|Problem Statement (What is the problem research is addressing?)
|COVID-19 broke out in 2019, and the WHO declared it a global pandemic and public health emergency. The first case of COVID-19 was reported on March 2, 2020. Globally, healthcare workers started experiencing secondary effects from the pandemic due to stressors such as new and unfamiliar occupational hazards, long shifts, inadequate resources, and work and life balance challenges. The study reveals that about 62% of healthcare workers reported health concerns relating to insomnia, fear anxiety, depressive symptoms, psychosomatic symptoms, PTSD, and perceived stigma. Notably, the nurses were predisposed to COVID-19 effects compared to other healthcare professionals in high-risk departments. Besides psychological effects, Bandyopadhyay et al. (2020) reveal that health workers had about 3.72 deaths per 100 infections, while a study by Kursumovic et al. (2020) reveals out of the 157reported COVID-19 deaths in the United Kingdom, 30.6% were nurses. Therefore, the physical and psychological effects of COVID-19 have raised substantial concerns for the nursing staff, leading to resignations at military hospitals due to job dissatisfaction.
|Purpose Statement (What is the purpose of the study?)
|While there have been efforts to study the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the nursing staff, the existing studies have included small samples of about 300 participants. The study also reveals that there is no current study in Saudi Arabia on psychological symptoms of job satisfaction. At the same time, the effects of the pandemic on nursing staff in military hospitals have not been studied in the country. Thus, the study aimed to study the relationships between nurses’ job satisfaction and psychological stress in military hospitals in the Middle East. The research examined the relationships between psychological stress (anxiety and depression) and job satisfaction among frontline nursing staff in a military hospital in Saudi Arabia. The study identified instrumental elements that will reflect on the nursing staff and the broader healthcare field to address the nursing retention problem globally.
|Research Questions (What questions does the research seek to answer?)
|What is the relationship between the psychological impact of COVID-19 and nurses’ job satisfaction in military schools in Saudi Arabia?What is the relationship between stress and anxiety and job satisfaction among frontline nursing staff at a military hospital in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 global pandemic?
|Define Hypothesis (Or state the correct hypothesis based upon variables used)
|H1: Physical and psychological challenges nurses encounter are secondary impacts of COVID-19 and are linked to low job satisfaction among frontline nurses. H0: Physical and psychological challenges nurses encounter are secondary impacts of COVID-19 and are not linked to low job satisfaction among frontline nurses (Analysis and Evaluation of Research-Nursing Paper Example).
|Identify Dependent and Independent Variables and Type of Data for the Variables
|Independent variables are physical and psychosocial (anxiety, stress, and depression) challenges nurses encounter. The variable is the ’cause’ that changes the dependent variables, while the data type is quantitative such as the level of depression/ anxiety/ stress or job satisfaction. Dependent variables entail job satisfaction that depends on the independent variable to change. Data collected is the level of job satisfaction among the nurses.
|Population of Interest for Study
|Registered nurses who were frontline caregivers in all units in a military hospital in Saudi Arabia.
|N= 624 nurses
|Convenience sampling (Analysis and Evaluation of Research-Nursing Paper Example)
|Identify Data Collection Identify how data were collected.
|A quantitative questionnaire written in English was used to collect the data. It had four sections (demographic, expanded nurses stress scale, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and Job satisfaction surveys) and a total of 122 items that took about 35 minutes to complete (Analysis and Evaluation of Research-Nursing Paper Example)
|Summarize Data Collection Approach
|After ethical approval, the units’ head nurses invited potential participants to participate, and all vital information on the study was conveyed. Since Saudi culture embraces the use of emails and social media as communication channels, units’ head nurses shared the survey using Google Forms through electronic links on WhatsApp with the registered nurses who agreed to participate (Analysis and Evaluation of Research-Nursing Paper Example).
|Discuss Data Analysis Include what types of statistical tests were used for the variables.
|The study used SPSS 26.0 Windows statistical software (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) for data analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze quantitative and categorical data. Student’s t-test for independent samples compared the quantitative outcome variables’ mean values to the categorical study variable with two categories. Tukey’s multiple comparison tests compared the quantitative outcome variables’ mean values related to categorical study variables of more than two categories. The statistical significance of the study results was reported using a p-value of ≤0.05. For multivariate analysis, the study used multiple linear regression to observe the independent relationship of the categorical study variables (DASS, ENSS, and JSS scores) (Analysis and Evaluation of Research-Nursing Paper Example).
|Summarize Results of the Study
|The study results revealed that stress was encountered more than anxiety and depression. Stress was significantly linked to the nurses working environment, such as working under high pressure, high workload, and lack/inadequate rest. The nurses were impacted based on the department in which they worked emergency nurses facing the highest challenges. Nurses who experienced stress, anxiety, and depression had low levels of job satisfaction, thus confirming the study’s hypothesis (Analysis and Evaluation of Research-Nursing Paper Example).
|Summary of Assumptions and Limitations Identify the assumptions and limitations of the article. Report other potential assumptions and limitations of your review not listed by the author.
|The study had some limitations. Although the research offered insights into how psychological stress affects the nursing workforce, there was a need to conduct qualitative analysis to obtain in-depth knowledge about the nurse’s experiences and perspectives. The research surveys were in English while the participants originated from diverse nationalities posing a potential language limitation.
As such, the study assumed that all the participants were proficient in English, which may not have been the case. Therefore, there was a need to provide translation to prevent potential communication barriers (Analysis and Evaluation of Research-Nursing Paper Example).
Research is an instrumental knowledge pillar that leads to global continuity and progress. In healthcare, research plays an instrumental role in advanced practice by providing evidence-based information. Hence, contributing to quality care and patient safety. Researchers should observe ethical principles to guide their designs and practices during the study process. Informed consent, voluntary participation, confidentiality, anonymity and results communication. In addition, potential harm remain an ethical considerations during a study (Jacobs, 2020 (Analysis and Evaluation of Research-Nursing Paper Example).
The presented study observed some of the listed ethical principles. First, the study participant obtained ethical approval from the King Fahd Armed Forces Hospital- Jeddah. In addition, Research and Ethics Committee (Ref. number: REC 398) (Sharif et al., 2023). Consequently, the study confirmed that the process would not harm the participants via the anonymous online survey application. Obtaining ethical approval portrays that researchers have adhered to the acceptable ethical standards necessary for a genuine research process (Analysis and Evaluation of Research-Nursing Paper Example).
Secondly, the researchers were transparent and open to the participants. The survey’s cover page offers crucial information concerning the research. For instance, the significance of the research and why the survey recipients received request to participate. Furthermore, the expected duration to complete the questionnaires (Sharif et al., 2023). Research transparency is crucial in ethical research as it openly informs the participants about the process, potential risks, and outcomes. Thus, the participants remain prepared. Hence, limiting potential accidents or unethical practices during the process (Analysis and Evaluation of Research-Nursing Paper Example).
The survey’s online links sent to the participants also have a statement of anonymity and confidentiality. The research remain conducted online through Google Forms and observed anonymity. On the other hand, the information provided stays protected through proper storage and management. The study conformed to the acceptable standards of the Declaration of Helsinki (Jacobs, 2020). The declaration provides ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. The study upheld the principle of respecting participants by seeking informed consent while protecting their rights and health (Analysis and Evaluation of Research-Nursing Paper Example).
Bandyopadhyay, S., Baticulon, R. E., Kadhum, M., Alser, M., Ojuka, D. K., Badereddin, Y., Kamath, A., Parepalli, S. A., Brown, G., Iharchane, S., & Gandino, S. (2020). Infection and mortality of healthcare workers worldwide from COVID-19: A systematic review. BMJ Global Health, 5(12), e003097. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/medrxiv/early/2020/06/05/2020.06.04.20119594.full.pdf
Jacobs, L. (2020). Embedding ethical principles in the information science research process. In Handbook of Research on Connecting Research Methods for Information Science Research (pp. 52-79). IGI Global. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1471-9.ch004
Kursumovic, E., Lennane, S., & Cook, T. M. (2020). Deaths in healthcare workers due to COVID-19: The need for robust data and analysis. Anesthesia, 1(1), 1– 10. https://associationofanaesthetists-publications.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/anae.15116
Sharif, L., Almutairi, K., Sharif, K., Mahsoon, A., Banakhar, M., Albeladi, S., … & Wright, R. (2023). Quantitative research on the impact of COVID‐19 on frontline nursing staff at a military hospital in Saudi Arabia. Nursing Open, 10(1), 217-229. https://doi.org/10.1002/nop2.1297