Essay on Alterations in Neurological and Endocrine Functions

Essay on Alterations in Neurological and Endocrine Functions: Write a 1500-2000 word APA formatted essay of the following topics: Classify and differentiate at least four types of stroke…

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Essay on Alterations in Neurological and Endocrine Functions

Paper details

Write a 1500-2000 word APA formatted essay of the following topics:

  • Classify and differentiate at least four types of stroke
  • Elaborate on the difference between primary and secondary Parkinson’s disease
  • Summarize the five categories of pain. Discuss their pathways. Explain the etiology of chronic and acute pain
  • Explain the pathophysiology and common clinical manifestations of Diabetes Mellitus Type II

Textbook as 1 of the cited sources

McCance, K. L., Huether, S. E., Brashers, V. L., & Rote, N. S. (2014). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for diseases in adults and children (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

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Solution

Types of Stroke

A stroke occurs when the flow of blood in the brain is interrupted. Lack of blood leads to death of brain cells, a scenario that results in catastrophic symptoms, disability, and death. The main types of strokes include the ischemic type of stroke, hemorrhagic, brain stem strokes, transient ischemic attacks and cryptogenic strokes. The first type of stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA) occurs as a mini-stroke or warning (Micha & Mozaffarian, 2017).

Blocking the flow of blood temporarily to the brain causes an ischemic transient attack due to the clot that lasts for a short time. The second type of ischemic stroke happens when a blood clot caused a fatty deposit on the inner side of blood vessels to prevent blood from flowing into parts of the brain.

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This type of stroke is embolic, which means that the blood clot is capable of moving from one part of the body to the brain as a result of atrial fibrillation caused by irregular heartbeats in a patient (McCance, Huether, Brashers, & Rote, 2014). The blood clot only disappears after treatment. Another type of stroke is a thrombotic stroke which happens after clot forms in the brain blood vessels.

A hemorrhagic stroke occurs after the rupturing, or breakage of brain blood vessels. The blood vessels spill blood in the surrounding blood tissues. Aneurysm stroke causes outward swelling of weakened blood vessels resulting in bursting (McCance, Huether, Brashers, & Rote, 2014).

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Arteriovenous malformation is a type of stroke that occurs in abnormally formed blood vessels causing them to burst into the brain due to high blood pressure. Cryptogenic strokes have unknown causes after test results fail to locate blood clots. Ultimately, brain stem strokes affect both the left and right sides of the body leaving the patient stiff or in locked state, meaning they are unable to move or speak (McCance, Huether, Brashers, & Rote, 2014).

Primary & Secondary Parkinson’s disease

A larger percentage of patients suffer from the primary or idiopathic type of Parkinson’s disease which includes familial and sporadic cases. Primary Parkinson’s disease lacks a cause and responds to different drugs that work by raising brain dopamine molecules. Patients that suffer from this type of disease make up 85% of all the cases in Parkinsonism (Sveinbjornsdottir, 2016).

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The Secondary type of Parkinson’s disease has known causation. The patients who suffer from this type of disease respond poorly to dopaminergic medicine. The secondary type of Parkinson’s disease is caused or categorized as drug-induced, vascular, normal pressure, and caused by infections, toxins and brain tumors.

Drug-induced Parkinsonism is caused by antipsychotics which lead to increased tremors and postural instability a few weeks after stopping to use medication (Tysnes & Storstein, 2017). Vascular Parkinson’s disease occurs due to small strokes that cause the death of brain cells. Build-up of ‘tau’ proteins that damage brain cells cause Parkinsonism.

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Categories of Pain

The type of pain determines the right medication a patient should receive from the pain management specialist. A patient who sprain their ankle, damages ligaments causing swelling of tissues. The tissues that are damaged activate receptors toward the nerve ending in the skin at the ankle joint. Nociceptive type of pain is caused when the receptors found at the end of the nerves in the skin at the damaged ankle of the joint send electrical impulses to the spinal cord via the nerves (McCance, Huether, Brashers, & Rote, 2014).

Other causes of this pain include; rheumatism and surgery wounds. Neuropathic type of pain occurs when a person cuts their nerves or part of their body tissue. The damaged nerve sends electrical impulses to the spinal cord and into the brain causing a painful sensation (Abd-Elsayed & Deer, 2019). This severe pain is caused by malfunction of nerves and goes on because the nerve does not heal especially in diabetic patients since the problem is in the spinal cord.

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Visceral pain occurs in the abdomen part of the human body due to inflammation of the intestines or other organs like the lungs, liver, and stomach (McCance, Huether, Brashers, & Rote, 2014). The tissues are damaged in the process as they release substances that activate nociceptors. The receptors send electrical impulses via the nerves to the spinal cord passing them to the brain causing pain.

Another category is vascular pain which happens when narrow blood vessels due to lack of oxygen or fatty acids fail to pass enough blood to the muscles of legs causing pain. Cancer pain occurs when the tissues are damaged by the invasion causing activation of receptors or nociceptors which send electrical impulses to the spinal code via the nerves to the brain causing a painful sensation (McCance, Huether, Brashers, & Rote, 2014). This pain is also associated with malignant tumors that invade tissues as they pressure blood cells and nerves causing too much pain to the patients. Cancer pain can also result from invasive treatments making it chronic.

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The tracts of pathways of pain are; the neo-spinothalamic tract, arch-spinothalamic tract, and the paleo-spinothalamic tract and the arch (McCance, Huether, Brashers, & Rote, 2014). The neo spinothalamic tract has very few synapses and the lateral spinothalamic tract. The paleo-spinothalamic tract is old. Lateral and medial pain pathways offer discriminative pain sensations. The spino-amygdalar and hypothalamic and pathways from spinal cords enable affective and autonomic pain responses (Treede et al., 2015). Pain neural pathways exist downwards from the somatosensory cortex part of the brain.

Pain can also be classified according to the duration. The classes include acute and chronic pain. Acute pain begins after one gets injured in an accident or an operation; for example, the pain one feels immediately an ankle is twisted. Acute pain is intense, occurs immediately following an injury and can severe in intensity but short-lasting. This type of pain warns the body of the potential damage that needs attention by the brain and it develops either quickly or slowly (Abd-Elsayed & Deer, 2019).

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Acute pain stems from tissue injury which triggers nociceptors, chemical mediators and inflammation (Johnson, Borsheski, & Reeves-Viets, 2013). Even though acute pain is sharp, it does not exceed six months. Some of the causes include surgery, broken bones, dental work and labor and childbirth. However, when the tissue is healed, it ceases as there is no underlying cause besides tissue damage.

Chronic pain is continuous or recurrent pain that exceeds the time of healing. Chronic pain also lasts for more than six months and persists after the tissue heals due to noxious stimuli, repeated exacerbation or the existence of unidentifiable pathophysiology. The chronic pain also occurs in the absence of trauma and does not give warning to the body for response.

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Treede et al. (2015) examine the ICD 11 framework on pain and underline that chronic pain comprises of chronic primary pain, chronic cancer pain, chronic posttraumatic and postsurgical pain, chronic neuropathic pain, chronic headache and orofacial pain, chronic visceral pain, and chronic musculoskeletal pain. These classifications define the diagnostic criteria for chronic pain, with specifiers being the severity of pain and psychosocial factors.

Type II Diabetes

The pathophysiology of type II diabetes is that it is caused by the constant development of insulin resistance including muscle, dysfunction of beta cells in the pancreases and liver cells. This type of diabetes clearly shows that nearly 90% of all patients are obese (Mamdouh et al., 2017). Abdominal fat is resistant to the antilipolytic aspects of insulin and results in excessive amounts of fatty acids in the abdomen.

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The buildup of fatty acids in the abdomen leads to insulin resistance in both the muscle cells and the liver. This process causes inhibition of insulin-mediated glucose uptake by the cells of the muscle and a higher rate of gluconeogenesis causing high levels of glucose circulating in the body and diabetic ketoacidosis (McCance & Rote, 2014).

Type II diabetes mellitus is also characterized by peripheral insulin resistance, less functioning of beta cells, reduced regulation of glucose and hepatic production and total failure of beta cells (Kautzky-Willer, Harreiter, & Pacini, 2016). The aspect which leads to all these malfunctions is reduced secretion of insulin in patients, insulin deficiency and peripheral insulin resistance. The beta cells fail during the first phase of insulin secretion — the pancreas release high amounts of insulin due to high circulating glucose. The high amounts of insulin cannot be maintained and this aspect leads to deterioration of beta cells.

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The early clinical manifestations of type II diabetes include; frequent urination following high blood sugar levels. The kidneys struggle to remove too much sugar through filtration of blood, leading to frequent urination especially during night hours (Kautzky-Willer, Harreiter, & Pacini, 2016). This scenario causes excessive loss of water in the body leading to increased thirst due to dehydration.

Type II diabetes patients feel hungry because their bodies break down sugar into glucose and not enough moves into the body bloodstream or cells. Feeling tired is another clinical manifestation that is as a result of less sugar being absorbed into the blood cells. Blurry vision is caused by excessive sugar in the blood leading to the total loss of sight, yeast infections, skin patches, slow healing of wounds, numbness or pain in both feet and hands (Kautzky-Willer, Harreiter, & Pacini, 2016).

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A higher level of sugar in the body causes hyperosmolar syndrome which is a detrimental form of dehydration that leads to weakness, coma, confusion in thoughts and nausea. On the contrary, type 2 diabetes results in too much glucose-lowering medicine which leads to hypoglycemia. Lastly, this chronic disease can cause life-threatening symptoms like atherosclerosis and foot problems.

References

  • Abd-Elsayed, A., & Deer, T. R. (2019). Different Types of Pain. In Pain (pp. 15-16). Springer, Cham.
  • Johnson, Q., Borsheski, R. R., & Reeves-Viets, J. L. (2013). Pain management mini-series. Part I. A review of management of acute pain. Missouri medicine, 110(1), 74–79.
  • Kautzky-Willer, A., Harreiter, J., & Pacini, G. (2016). Sex and Gender Differences in Risk, Pathophysiology, and Complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Endocrine Reviews, 37(3), 278–316. https://doi.org/10.1210/er.2015-1137
  • Mamdouh, M., Shaban, S., Ibrahim Abushouk, A., Zaki, M. M. M., Ahmed, O. M., & Abdel-Daim, M. M. (2017). Adipokines: potential therapeutic targets for vascular dysfunction in type II diabetes mellitus and obesity. Journal of diabetes research, 2017.
  • McCance, K. L., Huether, S. E., Brashers, V. L., & Rote, N. S. (2014). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for diseases in adults and children (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.
  • Micha, R., Peñalvo, J. L., Cudhea, F., Imamura, F., Rehm, C. D., & Mozaffarian, D. (2017). Association between dietary factors and mortality from heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in the United States. Jama, 317(9), 912-924.
  • As you continue, nursingstudy.org has the top and most qualified writers to help with any of your assignments including how to manage stress in workplaces. All you need to do is place an order with us (Essay on Alterations in Neurological and Endocrine Functions).
  • Sveinbjornsdottir, S. (2016). The clinical symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Journal of neurochemistry, 139, 318-324.
  • Treede, R. D., Rief, W., Barke, A., Aziz, Q., Bennett, M. I., Benoliel, R., Cohen, M., Evers, S., Finnerup, N. B., First, M. B., Giamberardino, M. A., Kaasa, S., Kosek, E., Lavandʼhomme, P., Nicholas, M., Perrot, S., Scholz, J., Schug, S., Smith, B. H., Svensson, P., … Wang, S. J. (2015). A classification of chronic pain for ICD-11. Pain, 156(6), 1003–1007. https://doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000160
  • Tysnes, O. B., & Storstein, A. (2017). Epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neural Transmission, 124(8), 901-905.

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